Published Research

Below are recent publications by Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation faculty and staff. Where possible we have included links to the published research.

Click on any visual abstract to read the full text research article.

Visual abstract Norms of Clinical Use of CXM research article
Visual abstract CIVO research article
Visual abstract Utility of the Current Procedural Terminology Codes for Prophylactic Stabilization
Visual abstract Does resident participation in the surgical fixation of hip fractures increase operative time or affect outcomes?

Neer Type II Distal Clavicle Fractures: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Fixation Techniques. Fox HM; Ramsey DC; Thompson AR; Hoekstra CJ; Mirarchi AJ; Nazir OF. J Bone Joint Surg 2020;102(3):254-261

Utility of Follow Up Radiographs After Pin Removal in Supracondylar Humerus Fractures: A Retrospective Cohort Study. Zusman NL; Barney NA; Halsey MF; Yang S. J Am Acad Orthop Surg 2020;28(2):e71-e76

Prevalence and Clinical Significance of Incidental Vertebral Marrow Signal Abnormality in Thoracolumbar Spine MRI. Carlson HL; Thompson AR; Pettersson DR; Goodwin B; Deloughery TG; Carlson NL; Marshall LM. Spine 2020;45(6):390-396

Postoperative Management Factors Affect Urinary Retention Following Posterior Spinal Fusion for Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis. Knight BA; Bayne A; Zusman N; Barney N; Yang S. Spine Deform 2020;10.1007/s43390-020-00090-9.

Oncology Patients Are High Cost Outliers in Total Joint Replacement Bundled Payment Systems. Woelber E; Gundle KR; Geddes J; Schabel KL; Hayden JB; Hasan SR; Raymond LM; Doung YC. J Arthroplasty 2020;35(1):12-16.e1

Comparing Cellular Bone Matrices for Posterolateral Spinal Fusion in a Rat Model. Lin C; Zhang N; Waldorff EI; Punsalan P; Wang D; Semler E; Ryaby JT; Yoo J; Johnstone B. JOR Spine 2020;e1084

A Comparative Evaluation of Commercially Available Cell-Based Allografts in a Rat Spinal Fusion Model. Johnstone B; Zhang N; Waldorff EI; Semler E; Dasgupta A; Betsch M; Punsalan P; Cho H; Ryaby JT; Yoo J. Internat J Spine Surg 2020;14(2):213–221.

Radiographic Evidence of Soft-Tissue Gas 14 Days After Total Knee Arthroplasty Is Predictive of Early Prosthetic Joint Infection. Li N; Kagan R; Hanrahan CJ; Hansford BG. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2020;214: 171-176

Angiotensin II Blockade Had No Effect on Range of Motion After Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Retrospective Review. Langston JR; Ramsey DC; Skoglund K; Schabel K. J Orthop Surg Res 2020;15(48):1-6

Radiographic Parameter-Driven Decision Tree Reliably Predicts Aseptic Mechanical Failure of Compressive Osseointegration Fixation. Kagan R; Parlee L; Beckett B; Hayden JB; Gundle KR; Doung Y-C. Acta Orthop 2020;91(2):171-176

A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial for Aerobic and Strengthening Exercises on Physical Function and Pain for Hip Osteoarthritis. Thompson AR; Christopherson Z; Marshall LM; Carlson HL; Carlson NL. PM&R 2020;12:229-237

Angiotensin II Blockade Had No Effect on Range of Motion After Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Retrospective Review. Langston JR; Ramsey DC; Skoglund K; Schabel K. J Orthop Surg Res 2020;15(48):1-6

Multi-Disciplinary Approaches for Cell-Based Cartilage Regeneration. Johnstone B; Stoddart M; Im GI. J Orthop Res 2020;38:463–472

Low-Grade Osteosarcomatous Transformation of an Atypical Lipomatous Tumor in a Pediatric Patient. Kukull BJ; Khalighi MA; Gundle KR; Hansford BG; Corless CL; Davis JL. Pediatr Dev Pathol 2020;240-246

CORR Insights®: Do Massive Allograft Reconstructions for Tumors of the Femur and Tibia Survive 10 or More Years After Implantation? Gundle KR. Clin Orthop Relat Res 2020;525-526

Is There an Association Between Prophylactic Femur Stabilization and Survival in Patients With Metastatic Bone Disease? Philipp TC; Mikula JD; Doung YC; Gundle KR. Clin Orthop Relat Res 2020;478:540-546

Compartment Syndrome in Tibial Plateau Fractures: Do Previously Established Predictors Have External Validity? Marchand LS; Working ZM; Rane AA; Elliott IS; Gilbertson E; Rothberg DL; Higgins TF; Haller JM. J Orthop Trauma 2020;34(5):238-243

Measurement of Midshaft Clavicle Vertical Displacement Is Not Influenced by Radiographic Projection. Hoogervorst P; Chopra A; Working ZM; El Naga N; Verdonschot; Hannink G. J Shoulder Elbow Surg Int 2020;4(2):251255

Multimodal Pain Control in Adolescent Posterior Spinal Fusion Patients: A Double-Blind, Randomized Controlled Trial to Validate the Effect of Gabapentin on Postoperative Pain Control, Opioid Use, and Patient Satisfaction. Anderson DE; Duletzke NT; Pedigo EB; Halsey MF. Spine Deform 2020;8(2):177185

Predicting and Promoting Human Bone Marrow MSC Chondrogenesis by Way of TGFb Receptor Profiles: Toward Personalized Medicine. Rothweiler R, Basoli V, Duttenhoefer F, Kubosch S, Schmelzeisen E, Johnstone B, Alini M, Stoddart MJ. Frontiers in Bioengin and Biotech. 2020;8:Article 618 doi: 10.3389/fbioe.2020.00618

Surgical Simulation Maximizing the Use of Fresh-Frozen Cadaveric Specimens: Examination of Tissue Integrity Using Ultrasound. Bell CD; O’Sullivan JG; Ostervoss TE; Cameron WE; Petering RC; Brady JM. J Grad Med Educ, in press https:// doi.org/10.

Ten-Year Survivorship, Patient-Reported Outcomes, and Satisfaction of a Fixed-Bearing Unicompartmental Knee Arthroplasty. Ryland Kagan MD, Mike B. Anderson MSC, Travis Bailey MD, Aaron A. Hofmann MD and Christopher E. Pelt MD, Arthroplasty Today, 2020-06-01, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 267-273

An Expert Consensus Statement on the Management of Large Chondral and Osteochondral Defects in the Patellofemoral Joint. Chahla J; Hinckel BB; Yanke AB; Farr J; and Metrics of Osteochondral Allografts (MOCA) Group. Orthop J Sports Med 2020;8(3):2325967120907343

Five-Year Radiographic Evaluation of Stress Shielding With a Press-Fit Standard Length Humeral Stem. Cole EW; Moulton SG; Gobezie R; Romeo AA; Walker JB; Lederman E; Denard PJ. J Shoulder Elbow Int 2020;4(1):109-113

Radiological Criteria for Atypical Features of Femur Fractures: What We Can Learn When Applied in a Clinical Study Setting. LeBlanc ES; Rosales AG; Genant HK; Dell RM; Friess DM; Boardman DL; Santora AC; Bauer DC; de Papp AE; Black DM; Orwoll ES. Osteoporos Int 2019 Jun;30(6):1287-1295

Advantages of an Anterior-Based Muscle-Sparing Approach in Transitioning From a Posterior Approach for Total Hip Arthroplasty: Minimizing the Learning Curve. Kagan RP; Greber EM; Richards SM; Erickson JA; Anderson MB; Peters CL. J Arthroplasty 2019 Dec;34(12):2962-2967

Patient-Reported Outcomes After Exosym Bracing (Intrepid Dynamic Exoskeletal Orthosis (IDEO)) in the Civilian Population. Hadden R; Meeker J; Weiss J; Thompson A. Foot & Ankle Orthop 2019;4(4) doi:10.1177/2473011419s00194

Calcaneal Tuberosity Fractures Through Prior Schantz Pin Sites in Patients With Diabetic Neuropathy. Ramsey DC; Laursen RK; Meeker J; Yoo B. The Foot 2019;39:9699

Mesenchymal Stem Cell Based Regenerative Treatment of the Knee: From Basic Science to Clinics. Zellner J; Johnstone B; Barry F; Madry H. Stem Cells Internat 2019, Article ID 7608718, 1

Alleviation of Cartilage Destruction by Sinapic Acid in Experimental Osteoarthritis. Cai D; Huff TW, Liu J;, Yuan T; Wei Z; Qin J. BioMed Research International 2019, Article ID 5689613

Multiple Cultures and Extended Incubation for Upper Extremity Revision Arthroplasty Affect Clinical Care: A Cohort Study. Mahylis J; DeHaan A; Domont ZB; Thompson AR; Orfaly RM; Barnes P; Mirarchi AJ. J Am Acad Orthop Surg Glob Res Rev 2019;3:e19.00150

Kyphosis and 3-Year Fall Risk in Community-Dwelling Older Men. McDaniels-Davidson C; Nichols JF; Vaida F; Marshall LM; Kado DM. Osteoporos Int, in press

Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms and Urinary Bother Are Common in Patients Undergoing Elective Cervical Spine Surgery. Lieberman EG; Radoslovich S; Marshall LM; Yoo JU. Clin Orthop Relat Res 2019;477:872-878. 2019 Apr.

Radiographic Parameter-Driven Decision Tree Reliably Predicts Aseptic Mechanical Failure of Compressive Osseointegration Fixation. Kagan R; Parlee L; Beckett B; Hayden JB; Gundle KR; Doung Y-C. Acta Orthop 2020;91(2):171-176

Reliability and Validity of the Vancouver Classification in Periprosthetic Fractures Around Cementless Femoral Stems. Shanjean Lee S; Kagan R; Wang L; Doung Y-C. J Arthroplasty 2019;34(7S):S277-S281

Mechanosensitive MiRs Regulated by Anabolic and Catabolic Loading of Human Cartilage. Hecht N; Johnstone B; Angele P; Walker T; Richter W. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2019;27(8):1208-1218

Physioxia Has a Beneficial Effect on Matrix Production in Interleukin-Beta Inhibited Mesenchymal Stem Cell Chondrogenesis. Pattappa G; Schewior R; Hofmeister I; Seja J; Zellner J; Johnstone B; Docheva D; Angele P. Cells 2019;8(8):E936

Cells Under Pressure – The Relationship Between Hydrostatic Pressure and Mesenchymal Stem Cell Chondrogenesis. Pattappa G; Zellner J; Johnstone B; Docheva D; Angele P. Eur Cell Mater 2019;37:360-381

The Importance of Physioxia in Mesenchymal Stem Cell Chondrogenesis and the Mechanisms Controlling Its Responses. Pattappa G; Johnstone B; Zellner J; Docheva D; Angele P. Int J Mol Sci 2019;20(3):484 4300/JGME-D-19-00553.1 OJO: The Oregon Journal of Orthopaedics 26 Research Publications

In Children With Traumatic Lateral Patellar Dislocations, Arthroscopic Repair of the MPFL Reduced Redislocations but Did Not Improve Knee Function. Brady JM. J Bone Joint Surg Am 2019;101(4):370

Isolated Medial Patellofemoral Ligament Reconstruction for Patellar Instability Regardless of Tibial Tubercle-Trochlear Groove Distance and Patellar Height: Outcomes at 1 and 2 Years. Erickson BJ; Nguyen J; Gasik K; Gruber S; Brady J; Shubin Stein E. Am J Sports Med 2019;47(6):13311337

Evaluation of Endoscopic Iliopsoas Tenotomy for Treatment of Iliopsoas Impingement After Total Hip Arthroplasty. Bell CD; Wagner MB; Wang L; Gundle KR; Heller LE; Gehling HA; Duwelius PJ. J Arthroplasty 2019 Jul;34(7):1498-1501

Multiplexed Evaluation of Microdosed Antineoplastic Agents In Situ in the Tumor Microenvironment of Patients With Soft Tissue Sarcoma. Gundle KR; Deutsch GB; Goodman JH; Pollack SM; Thompson MJ; Davis JL; Lee MY; Ramirez DC; Kerwin W; Bertout JA; Grenley MO; Sottero KHW; Beirne E; Frazier J; Dey J; Ellison M; Klinghoffer RA; Maki RG. Clin Cancer Res 2020 April 16. DOI: 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-20-0614. PMID 32299817

Unstable Pelvic Ring Injuries: How Soon Can Patients Safely Bear Weight? Marchand LS; Working ZM; Rane AA; Elliott IS; Howenstein A; Haller JM; Rothberg DL; Higgins TF. J Orthop Trauma 2019;33(2):71-77

In Vivo CT Analysis of Physiological Fibular Motion at the Level of the Ankle Syndesmosis During Plantigrade Weightbearing. Hoogervorst P; Working ZM; El Naga AN; Marmor M. Foot Ankle Spec 2019;12(3):233237

Clinical Practice Guidelines in the Treatment of Glenohumeral Joint Osteoarthritis. Kamath A; DeAngelis JP; Hazzan K; Gee AO; Pearl ML; Small K; Kennedy J; Dyer K; Leggin B; Dillon MT; Orfaly RM. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, in press

A Systematic Review of the Utility of Postoperative Imaging in the Management of Pediatric Supracondylar Humerus Fractures. Zusman NL; Barney NA; Woelber E; Yang S. J Pediatr Orthop 2019;10.1097/BPO.0000000000001431.

Safety and efficacy of high‐dose methotrexate for osteosarcoma in adolescents compared with young adults
Brittany Wippel, Kenneth R. Gundle, Theresa Dang, Jillian Paxton, Joseph Bubalo, Linda Stork, Rongwei Fu, Christopher W. Ryan, Lara E. Davis. Cancer Med 2019

Use of a Large Tenaculum Clamp as a Reduction Technique for Treatment of Distal Radius Fractures
Fox HM, Thompson AR, Nazir OF, Mirarchi AJ. J Hand Surg Am 2019

Hip Arthrography Complicated by Air Embolism in Infants. A Report of 2 Cases
Courtney Bell, Nattaly Greene, Meredith Kato, Rachel Goldsteinand, Scott Yang. JBJS Case Connect 2019

Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip
Yang S, Zusman N, Lieberman E, Goldstein RY. Pediatrics 2019

Identification of infectious species after resection of soft‐tissue sarcomas
Duncan C. Ramsey, Ryan A. Jones, Jason K. Weiss, Wyatt Hayden, James Hayden, Penelope Barnes, Yee‐Cheen Doung. J Surg Oncol 2019

A biomechanical comparison of all-inside cruciate ligament graft preparation techniques
Wichern CR, Skoglund KC, O'Sullivan JG, Burwell AK, Nguyen JT, Herzka A, Brady JM. J Exp Orthop 2018

Comparison of fluoroscopic techniques for assessment of femoral rotational alignment
Lieberman EG, Jansen K, Mast L, Brady, JM, Yoo BJ. OTA Internat 2018

Nonsurgical Treatment of Delayed-Onset Brachial Plexopathy Due to Hypertrophic Clavicular Callus: A Case Report
Carpenter BM, Pettersson DR, Mirarchi AJ, Groshong D, Carlson HL. PM&R 2018

Inertial Sensor-Based Assessment of Central Sensory Integration for Balance After Mild Traumatic Brain Injury
Geetanjali Gera, Jim Chesnutt, Martina Mancini, Fay B. Horak, Laurie A. King. Military Med 2018

Inertial Sensors Reveal Subtle Motor Deficits When Walking With Horizontal Head Turns After Concussion
Fino PC, Wilhelm J, Parrington L, Stuart S, Chesnutt JC, King LA. J Head Trauma Rehabil 2018

Inflection points in longitudinal models: Tracking recovery and return to play following concussion
Parrington L, Fino NF, Fino PC, Murchison CF, Chesnutt JC, King LA. Scand J Med Sci Sports 2018

The Dynamics of Concussion: Mapping Pathophysiology, Persistence, and Recovery With Causal-Loop Diagramming
Kenzie ES, Parks EL, Bigler ED, Wright DW, Lim MM, Chesnutt JC, Hawryluk GWJ, Gordon W, Wakeland W. Front Neurol 2018

Detecting gait abnormalities after concussion or mild traumatic brain injury: A systematic review of single-task, dual-task, and complex gait
Fino PC, Parrington L, Pitt W, Martini DN, Chesnutt JC, Chou LS, King LA. Gait Posture 2018

Abnormal Turning and Its Association with Self-Reported Symptoms in Chronic Mild Traumatic Brain Injury
Fino PC, Parrington L, Walls M, Sippel E, Hullar TE, Chesnutt JC, King LA. J Neurotrauma 2018

Treatment of unstable knee osteochondritis dissecans in the young adult: results and limitations of surgical strategies-The advantages of allografts to address an osteochondral challenge
Filardo G, Andriolo L, Soler F, Berruto M, Ferrua P, Verdonk P, Rongieras F, Crawford DC
Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2018

Osteochondritis Dissecans of the Knee: Etiology and Pathogenetic Mechanisms. A Systematic Review
Andriolo L, Crawford DC, Reale D, Zaffagnini S, Candrian C, Cavicchioli A, Filardo G. Cartilage 2018

Review of an exploratory phase II FDA regulated clinical trial of a novel surgical innovation: completion of a prospective, randomized, controlled trial to compare NeoCart with the standard-of-care, microfracture, for articular cartilage repair
Marie S. Kane, Riley J. Williams III, Thomas M. DeBerardino, Dean Taylor, C. Benjamin Ma, Devon E. Anderson, Dennis C. Crawford. Annals of Joint 2018

Efficacy of Fresh Osteochondral Allograft Transplantation in the Knee for Adults 40 Years and Older. Devon E. Anderson, Katlyn S. Robinson, Jack Wiedrick, Dennis C. Crawford. Orthop J Sports Med 2018

Epirubicin and Ifosfamide with Preoperative Radiation for High-Risk Soft Tissue Sarcomas
Lu E, Perlewitz KS, Hayden JB, Hung AY, Doung YC, Davis LE, Mansoor A, Vetto JT, Billingsley KG, Kaempf A, Park B, Ryan CW. Ann Surg Oncol 2018

Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Syndesmotic Screw Versus Suture Button Fixation in Tibiofibular Syndesmotic Injuries
Ramsey DC, Friess DM. J Orthop Trauma 2018

Conscious sedation versus rapid sequence intubation for the reduction of native traumatic hip dislocation
Aravind K. Bommiasamy, Dayton Opel, Raluca McCallum, John D. Yonge, Vicente Undurraga Perl, Christopher R. Connelly, Darin Friess, Martin A. Schreiber, Richard J. Mullins. AM J Surg 2018

Treatment Modalities for Pathologic Fractures of the Proximal Femur Pertrochanteric Region: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Reoperation Rates
David S. Putnam, Travis C. Philipp, Phillip W. Lam, Kenneth R. Gundle, MD. J Arthroplasty 2018

Analysis of Margin Classification Systems for Assessing the Risk of Local Recurrence After Soft Tissue Sarcoma Resection
Kenneth R. Gundle, Lisa Kafchinski, Sanjay Gupta, Anthony M. Griffin, Brendan C. Dickson, Peter W. Chung, Charles N. Catton, Brian O’Sullivan, Jay S. Wunder, and Peter C. Ferguson. J Clin Oncol 2018

Paediatric pulled elbow injury: more common and recurrent than you think
Halsey MF. Acta Paediatr. 2018

Hip Arthroscopy Complicated by a Deep Vein Thrombosis in a Patient with May-Thurner Syndrome: A Case Report
Lieberman EG, Bell CD, Herzka A. JBJS Case Connect 2018

Point-of-Care Ultrasound Diagnosis of Proximal Hamstring Rupture
Bengtzen RR, Ma OJ, Herzka A. J Emerg Med 2018

Prevalence of Preoperative Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms in Patients Undergoing Elective Lumbar Spine Surgery
Lieberman EG, Boone RM, Radoslovich S, Haj V, Hiratzka J, Marshall LM, Yoo JU. Spine 2018

The presence of Waddell signs depends on age and gender, not diagnosis
Yoo JU, McIver TC, Hiratzka J, Carlson H, Carlson N, Radoslovich SS, Gernhart T, Boshears E, Kane MS. Bone Joint J 2018

Corrigendum to "Delayed diagnosis of catastrophic ceramic liner failure with resultant pelvic discontinuity and massive metallosis"
Winston BA, Kagan RP, Huff TW. Arthroplast Today 2018

Race and gender influence management of humerus shaft fractures
Opel D, Rapone B, Krishnamoorthy B, Yoo J, Meeker J. J Orthop 2018

A new technique for olecranon osteotomy in the treatment of distal humeral fractures
Duncan C. Ramsey, Austin R. Thompson, Omar F. Nazir, Adam J. Mirarchi. JSES Open Access 2018

Proximal Junctional Kyphosis: Inter- and Intra-observer Reliability of Radiographic Measurements in Adult Spinal Deformity
Rastegar F, Contag A, Daniels A, Hiratzka J, Lin C, Chang J, Than K, Raslan A, Kong C, Nguyen NL, Hostin R, Kane M, Hart R. Spine 2018

Educational sessions

Management of Metastatic Disease to Bone. An instructional course lecture to effectively recognize and develop best practices for metastatic disease. Tessa Balach, M.D., Yee-Cheen Doung, M.D., Bryan S. Moon, M.D.

Podium presentations

Traditional Versus Digital Media-Based Hand Therapy After Distal Radius Fracture. Taylor Lara, M.D.

Utility of current procedural terminology codes for prophylactic stabilization for defining metastatic femur disease. Duncan Ramsey, M.D.

Posters

Neer 2 distal clavicle fractures: a cost-effectiveness analysis. Duncan Ramsey, M.D.

The Utility of Physical Examination in Ruling Out Cauda Equina Syndrome: Is MRI Necessary? Natalie,Zusman, M.D. 

Papers

When is an Orthopaedic Intern Ready to Take Call?
Derek Smith, MD; Trevor Barronian, MD; David Jenkins, BA; Andrea Herzka, MD; Jacqueline M. Brady, MD; Darin M. Friess, MD.

Fluoroscopic Images of the Sacroiliac Joint are Unable to Identify Simulated Flexion or Extension Malreduction of the Anterior Pelvic Ring in AO/OTA 61-B2.3 Pelvic Injuries with Anterior Comminution
Zachary Working, MD; Ashraf N. El Naga, MD; Paul Hoogervorst, MD, MSc; Riley Knox, BS; Meir T. Marmor, MD

Evaluation of Endoscopic Iliopsoas Tenotomy for Treatment of Iliopsoas Impingement After Total Hip Arthroplasty
Courtney D. Bell, MD; Paul J. Duwelius, MD; Lian Wang, MS; Brooke Beckett, MD; Hanne A. Gehling, BS; Mark B. Wagner, MD

Reliability and Validity of the Vancouver Classification in Uncemented Periprosthetic Hip Fractures
Shanjean Lee, MD; Lian Wang, MS; Yee-Cheen Doung, MD

Oncology Patients are High Cost Outliers in Bundled Payments for Total Joint Replacement
Erik Woelber, MD; Yee-Cheen Doung, MD; Kathryn Schabel, MD; James B. Hayden, MD; Jonah Geddes, MPH; Lauren Raymond, BS; Saifullah Hasan, BS; Kenneth R. Gundle, MD

Video presentations

Anterior-Based Muscle-Sparing Approach for Total Hip Arthroplasty and Transitioning from a Posterior Approach for Total Hip Arthroplasty: Minimizing the Learning Curve
Ryland Kagan, MD; Scott Lindsley; Mike Anderson, MSc; Jill Erickson, PA; Christopher L. Peters, MD

Posters

Descriptive Epidemiology Study of the Justifying Patellar Instability Treatment by Early Results (JUPITER) Cohort
Meghan E. Bishop, MD; Jacqueline M. Brady, MD; Daphne Ling, MPH, PhD; Shital N. Parikh, MD; Beth E. Shubin Stein, MD

Bacterial Speciation and Analysis of Infections after Resection of Soft Tissue Sarcomas
Duncan Ramsey, MD; MPH; Jason Weiss, MD; Wyatt J. Hayden; James B. Hayden, MD; Yee-Cheen Doung, MD

Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms and Urinary Bother are Frequent in Patients Undergoing Elective Cervical Spine Surgery
Elizabeth Lieberman, MD; Stephanie S. Radoslovich, BA; Thomas O’Toole, BA; Huy Hoang, BA; Ryan Boone, MS; Jung U. Yoo, MD