Photo of Martha Neuringer, Ph.D.

Martha Neuringer Ph.D.

  • (503) 346-5586
    • Research Associate Professor of Ophthalmology School of Medicine
    • Professor Oregon National Primate Research Center
    • Neuroscience Graduate Program School of Medicine

Dr. Neuringer’s major areas of research include 1) the development and characterization of nonhuman primate models of retinal diseases, including age-related macular degeneration, the leading cause of vision loss in the elderly; 2) preclinical studies of gene and cell-based therapies for retinal disease; 2) the role of nutritonal factors – particularly omega-3 fatty acids and carotenoids – in retinal and brain development, aging and disease; and 4) cognitive aging its modulation by ovarian hormones.

Areas of interest

  • Retinal degenerative disease
  • Nutritional factors in development and aging of the retina and brain
  • Gene and cell therapies for retinal disease
  • Cognitive aging


  • B.A., Harvard/Radcliffe, Cambridge Massachusetts United States 1966
  • Ph.D., Harvard University, Cambridge Massachusetts United States 1971
  • Ph.D., Harvard University 1971
  • Fellowship:

    • Postdoctoral Fellowship, ONPRC

Honors and awards

  • OHSU Distinguished Science Educator Award, 2003
  • International Life Sciences Institute: Certificate of Achievement for one of 20 most cited papers in 70-year history of Nutrition Reviews
  • OHSU Technology Innovation/Industry Collaboration Award, 2012 and 2014
  • Fellow, International Carotenoid Society, 2017

Memberships and associations

  • Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology
  • Society for Neuroscience
  • American Society for Nutrition
  • International Carotenoid Society


Selected publications

  • McGill TJ, Renner L, Neuringer M. Elevated fundus autofluorescence in monkeys deficient inlutein, zeaxanthin, and omega-3 fatty acids. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 57:1361-1369, 2016.

  • Kohama SG, Renner L, Landauer N, Weiss AR, Urbanski HF, Park B, Voytko ML, Neuringer M. Effect of ovarian hormone therapy on cognition in the aged female rhesus macaque. J Neurosci. 36:10416-10424, 2016.

  • Pennesi ME, Garg AK, Feng S, Michaels KV, Smith TB, Fay JD, Weiss AR, Renner LM, Hurst S, McGill TJ, Cornea A, Rittenhouse KD, Sperling M, Fruebis J, Neuringer M.  Measuring cone density in a Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata) model of age-related macular degeneration with commercially available adaptive optics.  Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 801:309-316, 2014

  • Koilkonda RD, Yu H, Chou TH, Feuer WJ, Ruggeri M, Porciatti V, Tse D, Hauswirth WW, Chiodo V, Boye SL, Lewin AS, Neuringer M, Renner L, Guy J.  Safety and efficacy of the vector for the Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy gene therapy clinical trial.  JAMA Ophthalmology, 132(4):409-420, 2014.

  • Grayson DS, Kroenke CD, Neuringer M, Fair DA.  Dietary omega-3 fatty acids modulate large-scale systems organization in the rhesus macaque brain.  J Neurosci 34(6):2065–2074, 2014. 

  • Wilson DJ, Neuringer M, Stoddard J, Renner LM, Bailey S, Lauer A, McGill TJ. Subretinal cell based therapy: An analysis of surgical variables to increase cell survival. Retina 2017 Jan 16. doi: 10.1097/IAE.0000000000001462.


  • "Essential fatty acids" Nutrition Reviews  1992
  • "Nutritional manipulation of primate retinas, V" Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science June 2011
  • "Effects of long-term protein deficiency on plasma lipoprotein concentrations and metabolism in rhesus monkeys" Journal of Nutrition  1981
  • "Dietary taurine is necessary for normal retinal development in monkeys." Progress in Clinical and Biological Research  1985
  • "Nutritional manipulation of primate retinas, I" Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science September 2004
  • "Effect of optimal dietary therapy upon visual function in children with long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase and trifunctional protein deficiency" Molecular Genetics and Metabolism September 2005
  • "Long-term effects on retina of rhesus monkeys fed taurine-free human infant formula" Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology  1996
  • "Regression of taurine depletion in rhesus monkeys deprived of dietary taurine throughout the first year" Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology  1992
  • "The essentiality of N-3 fatty acids for the development and function of the retina and brain" Annual Review of Nutrition  1988
  • "LHON gene therapy vector prevents visual loss and optic neuropathy induced by G11778A mutant mitochondrial DNA" Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science October 23 2014
  • "Rhesus monkeys and humans share common susceptibility genes for age-related macular disease" Human Molecular Genetics  2008
  • "Retinal pigment epithelial cell distribution in central retina of rhesus monkeys" Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science September 2002
  • "Effect of dietary n-3 fatty acids upon the phospholipid molecular species of the monkey retina" Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science  1994
  • "The putative role of lutein and zeaxanthin as protective agents against age-related macular degeneration" American Journal of Clinical Nutrition November 2012
  • "Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) and perinatal development" Acta Paediatrica, International Journal of Paediatrics  2001
  • "Visual cortex development in rhesus monkeys deprived of dietary taurine." Progress in Clinical and Biological Research  1990
  • "Retinal degeneration in 3-month-old rhesus monkey infants fed a taurine-free human infant formula" Journal of Neuroscience Research  1987
  • "Maculopathy in cynomolgus monkeys" JAMA Ophthalmology  1981
  • "Metabolism of lutein and zeaxanthin in rhesus monkeys" Comparative biochemistry and physiology. B, Comparative biochemistry September 2008
  • "Unique checkpoints during the first cell cycle of fertilization after intracytoplasmic sperm injection in rhesus monkeys" Nature Medicine April 1999
  • "Nutritional manipulation of primate retinas. IV. Effects of n-3 fatty acids, lutein, and zeaxanthin on S-cones and rods in the foveal region" Experimental Eye Research November 2005
  • "Age-related decline in rod phototransduction sensitivity in rhesus monkeys fed an n-3 fatty acid-deficient diet" Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science  2009
  • "Visual attention in infant monkeys" Developmental Psychology  1997
  • "Home cage behavior of rhesus monkeys with long-term deficiency of omega-3 fatty acids" Physiology and Behavior  1994
  • "Drusenoid maculopathy in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta)" Albrecht von Graefes Archiv für Klinische und Experimentelle Ophthalmologie  2008
  • "Effects of dietary n-3 fatty acids on the phospholipid molecular species of monkey brain" Journal of Neurochemistry  1990
  • "Effects of postnatal taurine deprivation on visual cortex development in rhesus monkeys through one year of age" Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology  1994
  • "Circadian activity associated with spatial learning and memory in aging rhesus monkeys" Experimental Neurology May 2009
  • "A novel melano-lysosome in the retinal epithelium of rhesus monkeys" Experimental Eye Research December 2011
  • "Visual recognition memory in infant rhesus monkeys" Infant Behavior and Development  1995

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