Leslie B. Hammer, PhD

  • Professor, Oregon Institute of Occupational Health Sciences
  • Co-Director, Oregon Healthy Workforce Center, Oregon Institute of Occupational Health Sciences

Biography

Dr. Hammer has expertise in Occupational Health Psychology and specializes in the psychological and physical health effects of supportive leadership at work and on the health consequences of work-family conflict. She has extensive experience in designing, implementing, and evaluating worksite interventions and supervisor training. Her research focuses on ways in which organizations can help reduce work and family stress and improve positive spillover by facilitating both formal and informal workplace supports.

She has studied workplace interventions with a variety of employee populations, such as grocery and service industry, health care, construction, information technology, government, and many others. Her current work extends this supportive supervisor training in the military domain, both with Active Duty Military and National Guard/Reserve Component service members. 

The COVID-19 pandemic has made Dr. Hammer's research more important now than ever. The challenges faced by workers range from work-life stress, disparities in employees’ ability to work from home. There is increased need for employers to support worker safety, health, and well-being both at work and outside the traditional work environment. Many of these challenges have disproportionately affected women and employees of color. The trainings developed by Dr. Hammer and her team have consistency shown that leader support can act as a buffer for these stressors, and improve the lives of employees and their families.

See Dr. Hammer's OHSU research lab here

Dr. Hammer is also the Co-Director of the Oregon Healthy Workforce Center, one of six Total Worker Health® centers of excellence funded by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health.  She was the Principal Investigator of the Phase I and Phase II Work, Family & Health Network (WFHN) Portland State University projects involving developing and evaluating a work-family intervention, namely Family Supportive Supervisor Behavior Training.
 

Dr. Hammer and her team recently launched the website Center for Supportive Leadership, which provides a single home for the many leader trainings they have developed and tested. It also includes a mini-training, Leadership Support during COVID-19, created specifically in response to the work challenges of the pandemic. Dr. Hammer co-authored an article for the website The Conversation, on leading with empathy during the COVID-19 crisis.

CURRENT RESEARCH PROJECTS

Department of Defense Projects

The next three research projects in this section were all funded by the Department of Defense, starting in 2013 to the present. Dr. Hammer and her team built on the Family Supportive Supervisor Behavior training, created with Dr. Ellen Kossek, and adapted the content for specific types of supervisor support in various military settings. Each project used a rigorous study design, a randomized controlled trial, and focused on employee outcomes of health and well-being, as well as organizational effects. We partnered with Drs. Cynthia Mohr and Todd Bodner at Portland State University.
 

Readiness Supportive Training for Leaders (RESULT): 2018 – 2023

RESULT involved the development and evaluation the effectiveness of our Readiness Supportive Leadership Training (RESULT) with active duty U.S. Army soldiers. The training program has had a positive impact on service member readiness and resilience, psychological health, team cohesion, and reduced loneliness. This research was designed to benefit not only U.S. Army soldiers, but service members across all military branches, as well as first-responders and other civilian occupations that face highly stressful situations as part of their work. Read more about the project on the Oregon and the Workplace blog.
 

The Oregon Military Employee Sleep and Health Study (MESH): 2016-2022
 
The MESH Study addressed the issue of sleep-related health concerns that are increasingly the focus of research in the military, as well as in the civilian sector. The adverse effects of sleep deprivation are known to cause a variety of negative health and family issues. We partnered with the Oregon National Guard to conduct this study.

We created a Family and Sleep Supportive Training for ORNG leaders and also gave individual sleep feedback to participants. Findings thus far show the MESH Training has a positive impact on sleep health, general well-being and improved work outcomes, such as higher job satisfaction and safety behaviors, as well we reduced turnover intentions. Even though they were not directly involved in the training, spouses and partners also benefited with improved couple and individual well-being effects. For more detail on these findings, as well as to experience the training program, please visit the MESH Study website.
 

Study for Employment Retention of Veterans (SERVe): 2013-2018

SERVe aimed to improve the health and well-being of service members and their families by targeting the workplace experiences of Veterans and Service Members recently transitioned to the civilian workforce. For the SERVe Study, Dr. Hammer and her team created an online training for supervisors of veteran employees to improve the knowledge and skills of supervisors with service members in their employ to foster a supportive workplace environment.

The SERVe training and behavior tracking programs are available at the SERVe website, along with summaries of research findings.
 

PAST RESEARCH PROJECTS

The Sandwiched Generation

Along with her colleague Dr. Margaret B. Neal, Dr. Hammer researched the modern phenomenon of working couples who care for both children and aging parents and coined them the "Sandwiched Generation". Her research guides evidence-based practices aimed at improving the health and well-being of these couples.

Work, Family & Health Network (WFHN)

The Work, Family & Health Network (WFHN) is comprised of an interdisciplinary team of researchers brought together by The National Institutes of Health and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to advance the field of workplace psychosocial interventions in order to improve the health of workers and their families, while benefiting employers. Read more about the The Work, Family & Health Network (WFHN) here

Education

  • Ph.D., 1991, Bowling Green State University

Honors and awards

  • 2022, OHSU Faculty Award for Outstanding Research
  • 2020, Work and Family Researchers Network, Ellen Galinsky Generative Researchers Award with Ellen E. Kossek
  • 2019 SIOP Scientist-Practitioner Presidential Recognition
  • 2018 Fellow, European Academy of Occupational Health Psychology
  • 2016 Publication with Odle-Dusseau (Odle-Dusseau, Hammer, Crain, & Bodner, 2016) in JOHP was named one of the 10 most important I/O Psychology articles with practical significance to organizations.
  • 2014 Kanter Awards for Excellence in Work-Family Research—First Place Winner out of 2500 for most influential work-family article in 2014. Kelly, E. L., Moen, P., Oakes, M., Fan, W., Okechukwu, C., Davis, K. D., Hammer, L. B., Kossek, E. E., King, R. B., Hanson, G., Mierzwa, F., Casper, L. (2014) Changing Work and Work-Family Conflict: Evidence from the Work, Family, and Health Network. American Sociological Review. Vol. 79(3) 485–516
  • 2013 Recipient of the Branford Price Millar Award for Excellence in Research Scholarship at Portland State University
  • 2013 Elected as a Fellow of the American Psychological Association
  • 2013 Elected as a Fellow of the Society of Industrial Organizational Psychology
  • 2012 Kanter Awards for Excellence in Work-Family Research--article among top 6 Finalist (out of 2,500) for most influential work-family articles in 2011. (Hammer, L. B., Kossek, E. E., Anger, W. K., Bodner, T., & Zimmerman, K. 2011.Clarifying work-family intervention processes: The roles of work-family conflict and family supportive supervisor behaviors. Journal of Applied Psychology, 96, 134-150.)

Memberships and associations

  • Academy of Management (1991-present)
  • American Psychological Association (APA) Fellow Status (1991-present)
  • APA Military Psychology, Division 19
  • APA Health Psychology, Division 38
  • APA Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology Fellow Status, Division 14 (1991-present)
  • Society for Occupational Health Psychology, Founding President (2004-2005)
  • Society for Occupational Health Psychology, Member (2004-present)
  • American Society for Safety Professionals (2018-present)

Areas of interest

  • Work-Family Conflict and Stress
  • Occupational Stress
  • Occupational Safety and Health
  • Supervisor Supportive Training
  • Workplace Interventions 

Publications

Selected publications

  • Wong, J. R., Crain, T. L., Brossoit, R. M., Hammer, L. B., Bodner, T. E., & Brady, J.M. (in press). Beyond just resilience: The important role of work-family resources for soldiers. Occupational Health Science.
  • Yu, A., Pichler, S., Russo, M., & Hammer, L. (2022). Family-supportive supervisor behaviors and work-family conflict: The role of stereotype content and gender role beliefs. Journal of Occupational & Organizational Psychology, 95, 274-302. DOI:10.1111/joop.12379
  • Hammer, L.B. (2021). The Interplay of Workplace Redesign and Public Policy in the 21st Century. American Journal of Public Health, 111(10), 1784-1786. DOI: 10.2105/AJPH.2021.306368
  • Hammer, L. B., Brady, J. M., Brossoit, R. M., Mohr, C. D., Bodner, T. E., Crain, T. L., & Brockwood, K. J. (2021). Effects of a Total Worker Health® Leadership Intervention on Employee Well-Being and Functional Impairment. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 26, 582–598. DOI: 10.1037/ocp0000312
  • Wipfli, B., Wild, S., Richardson, D., & Hammer, L.B. (2021). Work as a Social Determinant of Health – A necessary foundation for occupational health and safety. Journal of Environmental and Occupational Medicine, 63, (11), e830-e833.
  • Robles-Saenz, F., Brossoit, R.M., Crain, T.L., Hammer, L.B., Wong, J.R. (2021). Understanding the role of family-specific resources for immigrant workers. Occupational Health Science, 5, 541–562.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s41542-021-00099-0
  • Hanson, G., Rameshbabu, A., Bodner, T., Hammer, L.B., Rohlman, D., Olson, R., Wipfli, B., Kuehl, K., Perrin, N., Alley, L., Schue, A., Thompson, S., Parish, M. (2021). A Comparison of Safety, Health, and Well-Being Risk Factors Across Five Occupational Samples. Frontiers in Public Health, section Occupational Health and Safety 9:614725. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2021.614725.
  • Brady, J.M., Hammer, L.B., Mohr, C.D., & Bodner, T. (2021). Supportive Supervisor Training Improves Marital Relationship Quality among Employee and Spouse Dyads. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 26, 31-48. doi.org/10.1037/ocp0000264
  • Perry, M.L., El-Askari, L.M., Hammer, L.B., & Brown, N. D. (2020). Securing your Own Mask before Assisting Others: Effects of a Supervisor Training Intervention on Supervisors and Employees. Occupational Health Science, 4, 417–443. doi.org/10.1007/s41542-020-00075-0
  • O'Neill, A. S., Mohr, C. D., Bodner, T. E., & Hammer, L. B. (2020). Perceived Partner Responsiveness, Pain, and Sleep: A Dyadic Study of Military-Connected Couples. Health Psychology, 39, 1089–1099. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/hea0001035