Photo of Claudio V. Mello, M.D., Ph.D.

Claudio V. Mello M.D., Ph.D.

Claudio Mello earned an M.D. in Brasilia, Brazil, and a Ph.D. in molecular neurobiology at Rockefeller University, New York City. His broad interests relate to understanding the molecular genetic and neuronal basis of learned behaviors. His research program is centered on investigating the biology of vocal learning, a behavioral trait that enables speech and language acquisition in humans. Vocal learning is quite rare among mammals, but is very prominent in three bird groups: songbirds, parrots and hummingbirds. To study vocal behavior and related brain pathways in these avian vocal learners, the Mello lab utilizes molecular techniques, comparative and functional genomics, neuroanatomical tract-tracing and behavioral approaches in representative species, most notably zebra finches. Research in the Mello lab has been funded through grants from the NIH (NIDCD, NIGMS, NINDS), NSF and MRF of Oregon.


Besides numerous studies on the molecular and anatomical organization of avian vocal control and vocal learning systems, the Mello lab has actively participated in several collaborative and resource building efforts. This includes the consortium that led to changes in the Avian Brain Nomenclature, the SoNG consortium that developed genomics resources for zebra finches (brain cDNA, BAC libraries and microarrays), the collaborative effort to sequence and annotate the zebra finch genome, and the Avian Phylogenomics Consortium that redefined avian phylogeny based on genomic data. Among other contributions, these collaborations have helped define avian gene losses and lineage-specific gains, as well as led to the discovery of convergent molecular specializations of vocal areas in songbirds and humans. The lab is also involved in collaborative efforts to develop gene manipulation tools in zebra fiches, funded through an EDGE grant from NSF (with E. Jarvis at Rockefeller Univ., and C. Lois and T. Velho at Caltech), and to elucidate neural and molecular mechanisms associated with vocal learning in bats (with C. Portfors at WSU, and M. Yartsev at Berkeley).

A major effort in the Mello lab has been to characterize the expression profiles of brain-expressed genes in zebra finches. Accordingly, we have developed the Zebra finch Expression Brain Atlas (ZEBrA; an online and expanding database of high resolution digital in situ hybridization images of brain expressed genes (>700), with reference to a histological atlas. ZEBrA contains numerous molecular markers of vocal nuclei, representing candidate regulators of unique features of vocal learning behavior and related brain pathways. ZEBrA also contains numerous markers of broad brain areas, thus contributing to studies of comparative vertebrate neuroanatomy and brain evolution. Through specific portals and an attributes tool, ZEBrA provides information on how genes are associated with speech and language function, human genetic disorders (OMIM-based), mouse neurological and behavioral phenotypes (MGI-based), and brain expression patterns in mammals (based on Allen Institute’s mouse brain atlas). ZEBrA has been funded through resource building R24 grants from the NIH/NIGMS, as well as a pilot R03 grant from the NIH/NINDS, as well as benefitted from other grants to the Mello lab from the NIH/NIDCD and from NSF.

In 2018, a parrot genome study led by Dr. Mello reveals genes associated with cognition and longevity. The discovery was covered in The New York Times, New Scientist, The Portland Business Journal and an outlet in Brazil.

Also in 2018, Dr. Mello’s research revealed a species of hummingbird with a call well above the known hearing range of any bird species ever recorded. By understanding the mechanism of hearing in such a high range, it may be possible to apply this knowledge to people. The discovery was featured in The New York Times, Nature, National Geographic and Popular Science.

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Areas of interest

  • Neuroethology
  • Molecular neuroscience
  • Speech and Language
  • Vocal learning
  • Central auditory processing
  • Learning and memory
  • Neurogenomics


  • M.D., University of Brasilia, Brasilia, DF Brazil 1988
  • Ph.D., The Rockefeller University, New York New York United States 1993


  • "Parrot Genomes and the Evolution of Heightened Longevity and Cognition." Current Biology  In: , Vol. 28, No. 24, 17.12.2018, p. 4001-4008.e7.
  • "Comparative mitogenomic analyses of Amazona parrots and Psittaciformes." Genetics and Molecular Biology  In: , Vol. 41, No. 3, 01.07.2018, p. 593-604.
  • "Curation of microarray oligonucleotides and corresponding ESTs/cDNAs used for gene expression analysis in zebra finches." BMC Research Notes  In: , Vol. 11, No. 1, 309, 18.05.2018.
  • "The constitutive differential transcriptome of a brain circuit for vocal learning." BMC Genomics  In: , Vol. 19, No. 1, 231, 03.04.2018.
  • "Erratum : Black Jacobin hummingbirds vocalize above the known hearing range of birds (Current Biology (2018) 28(5) (R204–R205) (S0960982218300745) (10.1016/j.cub.2018.01.041))." Current Biology  In: , Vol. 28, No. 7, 02.04.2018.
  • "Black Jacobin hummingbirds vocalize above the known hearing range of birds." Current Biology  In: , Vol. 28, No. 5, 05.03.2018, p. R193-R194.
  • "Correspondence on Lovell et al. Response to Bornelöv et al." Genome Biology  In: , Vol. 18, No. 1, 113, 14.06.2017.
  • "Avian genomics lends insights into endocrine function in birds." General and Comparative Endocrinology  In: , 07.03.2017.
  • "The assembly and annotation of the complete Rufous-bellied thrush mitochondrial genome." Mitochondrial DNA Part A: DNA Mapping, Sequencing, and Analysis  In: , Vol. 28, No. 2, 04.03.2017, p. 231-232.
  • "A new chicken genome assembly provides insight into avian genome structure." G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics  In: , Vol. 7, No. 1, 2017, p. 109-117.
  • "Control of phasic firing by a background leak current in avian forebrain auditory neurons." Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience  In: , Vol. 9, No. DEC, 471, 10.12.2015, p. 1-17.
  • "Dynamic gene expression in the song system of zebra finches during the song learning period." Developmental Neurobiology  In: , Vol. 75, No. 12, 01.12.2015, p. 1315-1338.
  • "Living without DAT : Loss and compensation of the dopamine transporter gene in sauropsids (birds and reptiles)." Scientific Reports  In: , Vol. 5, 14093, 14.09.2015.
  • "Response to Hron et al." Genome Biology  In: , Vol. 16, No. 1, 165, 18.08.2015.
  • "A putative RA-like region in the brain of the scale-backed antbird, Willisornis poecilinotus (Furnariides, Suboscines, Passeriformes, Thamnophilidae)." Genetics and Molecular Biology  In: , Vol. 38, No. 3, 01.07.2015, p. 249-254.
  • "The opportunities and challenges of large-scale molecular approaches to songbird neurobiology." Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews  In: , Vol. 50, 01.03.2015, p. 70-76.
  • "Drinking songs : Alcohol effects on learned song of zebra finches." PLoS One  In: , Vol. 9, No. 12, e115427, 23.12.2014.
  • "Comparative genomics reveals molecular features unique to the songbird lineage." BMC Genomics  In: , Vol. 15, No. 1, 1082, 13.12.2014.
  • "Convergent transcriptional specializations in the brains of humans and song-learning birds." Science  In: , Vol. 346, No. 6215, A6, 12.12.2014.
  • "Whole-genome analyses resolve early branches in the tree of life of modern birds." Science  In: , Vol. 346, No. 6215, 12.12.2014, p. 1320-1331.
  • "Comparative genomics reveals insights into avian genome evolution and adaptation." Science  In: , Vol. 346, No. 6215, 12.12.2014, p. 1311-1320.
  • "The Zebra finch, taeniopygia guttata : An avian model for investigating the neurobiological basis of vocal learning." Cold Spring Harbor Protocols  In: , Vol. 2014, No. 12, 01.12.2014, p. 1237-1242.
  • "An optimized protocol for high-throughput in situ hybridization of zebra finch brain." Cold Spring Harbor Protocols  In: , Vol. 2014, No. 12, 01.12.2014, p. 1249-1258.
  • "Proper care, husbandry, and breeding guidelines for the zebra finch, Taeniopygia guttata." Cold Spring Harbor Protocols  In: , Vol. 2014, No. 12, 01.12.2014, p. 1243-1248.
  • "Long-distance retinoid signaling in the zebra finch brain." PLoS One  In: , Vol. 9, No. 11, 0111722, 13.11.2014.
  • "Conserved syntenic clusters of protein coding genes are missing in birds." Genome Biology  In: , Vol. 15, No. 12, 2014, p. 565.
  • "Genomics analysis of potassium channel genes in songbirds reveals molecular specializations of brain circuits for the maintenance and production of learned vocalizations." BMC Genomics  In: , Vol. 14, No. 1, 470, 11.07.2013.
  • "Digital atlas of the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) brain : A high-resolution photo atlas." Journal of Comparative Neurology  In: , Vol. 521, No. 16, 2013, p. 3702-3715.
  • "Impact of experience-dependent and -independent factors on gene expression in songbird brain." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America  In: , Vol. 109, No. SUPPL.2, 16.10.2012, p. 17245-17252.
  • "Increased bursting glutamatergic neurotransmission in an auditory forebrain area of the zebra finch (Taenopygia guttata) induced by auditory stimulation." Journal of Comparative Physiology A: Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology  In: , Vol. 198, No. 9, 09.2012, p. 705-716.

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