Diagnosis and Clinical Tests 2009

Objectives and Goals

  • Classify pulp and periapical diseases and their clinical features.
  • Discuss the importance and limitations of and procedures for the clinical examination of the soft tissues and periodontium as related to the endodontic examination.
  • Discuss the importance and limitations of and procedures for the clinical pulp and periapical tests involved in the endodontic examination.

Ingle's Endodontics, ed 6; Ingle JI, Bakland LK & Baumgartner JC  eds. BC Decker, 2008.  p. 520 - 553.


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Ingram TA et al. Evaluation of the effects of carbon dioxide used with a pulpal test. I: In vivo effect on human enamel and pulpal tissues. J Endodon 1983;9:296.

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Moody AB, Browne RM, Robinson PP. A comparison of monopolar and bipolar electrical stimuli and thermal stimuli in determining the vitality of human teeth. Arch Oral Biol 1989;34:701-705.

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Petersson K, Soderstrom C, Kiani-Anaraki M, Levy G. Evaluation of the ability of thermal and electrical tests to register pulp vitality. Endodon Dent Traum 1999;15:127-131.

Selden HS. Diagnostic thermal pulp testing: a technique. J Endod 26:623. October, 2000.

Kells BE, Kennedy JG, Biagioni PA, Lamey PJ. Computerized infrared thermographic imaging and pulpal blood flow: Part 1. A protocol for thermal imagine of human teeth. Int Endo J 33:442. 2000.

Kells BE, Kennedy JG, Biagioni PA, Lamey PJ. Computerized infrared thermographic imaging and pulpal blood flow: Part 2. Rewarming of healthy human teeth following a controlled cold stimulus. Int Endo J 33:448. 2000.

Kerezoudis NP, Donta-Bakoyianni C, Siskos G. The lateral periodontal cyst: aetiology, clinical significance and diagnosis. Endod Dent Traumatol 16:144. 2000.

Goodis HE, Winthrop V, White JM. Pulpal responses to cooling tooth temperatures. J Endod 26:263. May, 2000.

Yanpiset K, Vongsavan N, Sigrudsson A, Trope M. Efficacy of laser dopler flowmetry for diagnosis of revascularization of reimplanted immature dog teeth. Dent Traum 17:63. 2001.

Bahcall J and Barss J. Fiberoptic endoscope usage for intracanal visualization. J Endodon 27:128. February, 2001.

Liewehr F. An inexpensive device for transillumination. J Endodon 27:130. February, 2001.

Petka K. The 14 warning signs. Endo Prac 4:18. October, 2001.

McCaul LK, McHugh S, Saunders P. The influence of specialty training and experience on decision making in endodontic diagnosis and treatment planning. Int Endo J 34:594. 2001.

Roberts S, West LA, Liewehr FR, Rueggeberg FA, Sharpe DE, Potter BJ. Impact of dental devices on cochlear implants. J Endod 28:40. January, 2002.

Slaton CC, Loushine RJ, Weller RN, Parker MH, Kimbrough WF, Pashley DH. Identification of resected root-end dentinal cracks: A comparative study of visual magnification. J Endod 29:519. August, 2003.

Gupta R & HasselgrenG. Prevalence of odontogenic sinus tracts in patients referred for endodontic therapy. J Endod 29: 798. December, 2003.

Boykin MJ, Gilbert GH, Tilashalski KR, Shelton BJ. Incidence of endontic treatment: A 48-month prospective study. J Endod 29:806. December, 2003.

Strobel H, Gojer G, Norer B, Emshoff R. Assessing revascularization of avulsed permanent masillary incisors by laser Dopler flowmetry. J Am Dent Ass 134:1597. December, 2003.

Polat S, Er Ka, Akpinar KE, Polat NT. The sources of laser Doppler blood-flowsignals recorded from vital and root canal treated teeth. Arch Oral Bio 49:53. Janruary, 2004.

Akpinar KE, Er K, Polat S, Polat NT. Effect of gingival on laser Doppler pulpal blood flow measurements. J Endod 30:138. March, 2004.

Smith E, Dickson M, Evans AL, Smith D, Murray CA. An evaluation of the use of tooth temperature to assess human pulp vitality. Int Endo J 37:374. June, 2004.

Miller SO, Johnson JD, Allemang JD, Strother JM. Cold testing through full-coverage restorations. J Endod 30:695. October, 2004.

Wright HM, Loushine RJ, Weller N, Kimbrough WF, Waller J, Pashley DH. Identification of resected root-end dentinal cracks: A comparative study of transillumination and dyes. J Endod 30:712. October, 2004.

Mounce R. Know when to say "when" in Endodontics Smoke on the water. Dent Today 23:102. October, 2004.

Emshoff R, Emshoff I, Moschen I, Strobl H. Diagnostic characteristics of pulpal blood flow levels associated with adverse outcomes of luxated permanent maxillary incisors.

Campbell KM, Casas MJ, Kenny DJ, Chau T. Diagnosis of ankylosis in permanent incisors by expert ratings, Periotest and digital sound wave analysis. Dent Traumatol 21:206. 2005.

Nam KC, Ahn SH, Cho JH, Kim DW, Lee SJ. Reduction of excessive electrical stimulus during electric pulp testing. Int Endo J 38:544. 2005.

Polat S, Küşat E, Polat NT. Penetration depth of laser Doppler flowmetry beam in teeth. OOOO&E 100:125. July, 2005.

Simon JHS, Encisco R, Malfaz J, Roges R, Bailey-Perry M, Patel A. Differential diagnosis of large periapical lesions using Cone-beam Computed Tomography measurements and biopsy. J Endod 32d:833. September, 2006.

Rajendran N & Sundaresan B. Efficacy of ultrasonic and color power Doppler as a monitoring tool in the healing of endodontic periapical lesions. J Endod 33:181. February, 2007.

Gopikrishna V, Tinagupta K, Kandaswamy D. Evaluation of efficacy of a new custom-made pulse oximeter dental probe in comparison with the electrical and thermal tests for assessing pulp vitality. J Endod 33:411, April, 2007.

Gopikrishna V, Tinagupta K, Kandaswamy D. Comparison of electrical, thermal, and pulse omixmetry methods for assessing pulp vitality in recently traumatized teeth. J Endod 33:531. May, 2007.

Khan AA, McCreary B, Owatz C, Schindler WG, Schwartz SA, Keiser K, Hargreaves KM. The development of a diagnostic instrument for the measurement of mechanical allodynia. J Endod 33:663. June, 2007.

Lin J, Chandler N, Purton D, Monteith B. Appropriate electrode placement site for electric pulp testing first molar teeth. J Endod 33:1296. November, 2007.

Krell KV & Rivera EM. A six year evaluation of cracked teeth diagnosed with reversible pulpitis: Treatment and Prognosis. J Endod 33:1405. December, 2007.

Linsuwanont P, Palamara JE, Messer HH. Thermal transfer in extracted incisors during thermal pulp sensitivity testing. Int Endo J 41:204. 2008.

Bigras BR, Johnson BR, BeGole EA, Wenckus CS. Differences in clinical decision making: a comparison between specialists and general dentists. OOOO&E 106:139. July, 2008.

Jafarzadeh H, Udoye C, Kinoshita J. The application of tooth temperature measurement in endodontic diagnosis: a review. J Endod 34:1435. December, 2008.

Jararzadeh H & Rosenberg PA. Pulse oximetry: Review of a potential aid in endodontic diagnosis. J Endod 35:329. March, 2009.

Zadik Y. Barodontalgia. J Endod 35:481. April, 2009.  

*ABE Review Articles