Meniere's Disease

What is Ménière's disease?

Ménière's disease is a balance disorder caused by an abnormality found in a section of the inner ear called the labyrinth.

There are an estimated 615,000 people in the US who have Ménière's disease, with 45,500 new cases diagnosed each year.

What causes Ménière's disease?

The labyrinth contains the organs of balance and hearting. It is made up of two parts:

  • Bony labyrinth

  • Membranous labyrinth

The membranous labyrinth is encased in bone and contains a fluid calledendolymph.

When the head moves, the endolymph also moves, which causes nerve receptors in the membranous labyrinth to signal the brain about the body's motion.

Endolymph buildup in the labyrinth can interfere with the normal balance and hearing signals between the inner ear and the brain, resulting in Ménière's disease.

What are the symptoms of Ménière's disease?

The following are the most common symptoms of Ménière's disease. However, each individual may experience symptoms differently. Symptoms can occur suddenly, and may happen daily or infrequently.

The most debilitating symptom is vertigo, which is a severe spinning sensation that can cause:

  • Severe nausea

  • Vomiting

  • Sweating

Other symptoms may include:

  • Tinnitus (ringing in the ears)

  • Loss of hearing

  • Pressure in the affected ear

  • Loss of balance

  • Headaches

The symptoms of Ménière's disease may resemble other conditions or medical problems. Always consult your physician for a diagnosis.

Diagnosis of Ménière's disease

In addition to a complete medical history and physical examination, the physician may request:

  • Hearing test

  • Balance test

  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans (to determine if a tumor is present)

  • Electrocochleography (to measure electrical activity of the inner ear)

Treatment for Ménière's disease

Specific treatment for Ménière's disease will be determined by your physician based on:

  • Your age, overall health, and medical history

  • Extent of the disease

  • Your tolerance for specific medications, procedures, or therapies

  • Expectations for the course of the disease

  • Your opinion or preference

Treatment may include:

  • Surgery 
    Several types of surgery are effective for treating the balance problems of Ménière's disease.

  • Medication 
    Medications may be given to control allergies, reduce fluid retention, or improve the blood circulation in the inner ear.

  • Change in diet 
    Eliminating caffeine, alcohol, and salt may reduce the frequency and intensity of symptoms.

  • Behavior therapies 
    Reducing stress may lessen the severity of the disease symptoms.