Safety and Health Improvement Program

Adopt SHIP in your organization. If your organization is interested in implementing the Safety and Health Improvement Program, visit our tools and toolkits website at

The Safety & Health Improvement Program (SHIP) was designed to increase supervisor and peer support and decrease job strain, which play a key role in safety compliance and improved physical and mental health. SHIP integrates a focus on both health protection and health promotion by addressing psycho-social factors that are shown to be related to safety1, well-being2, and organizational productivity3.

The SHIP intervention study was a NIOSH-funded randomized controlled trial focusing on supervisors and their teams. SHIP aimed to increase employee support from supervisors, improve team communication, enhance team effectiveness, and reduce stress and work-family conflict.

The SHIP intervention was composed of:

  • One-hour training for supervisors 
  • Behavior-tracking that reinforced the training principles
  • Team-based planning and problem-solving that utilizes a modified version of WFD Consulting's Team Effectiveness Process
  • Follow-up sessions

SHIP has been systematically  revised to apply across industries and organizations . The revised SHIP training is now available to implement in your organization.

The SHIP intervention was tested in the construction industry and with a sample of 528 employees, we found that the intervention was effective at reducing worker blood pressure4Learn more about the impact of SHIP. 

The intervention also improved perceptions of work team effectiveness and work-life balance, especially for workers who initially had weaker relationships with their supervisors and coworkers5.

Download the latest SHIP intervention study publication.

Hammer, L. B., Truxillo, D. M., Bodner, T., Pytlovany, A., & Richman A. (in press). Exploration of the impact of organizational context on a workplace safety and health intervention. Work and Stress.

Yaldiz, L. M., Truxillo, D. M., Bodner, T., & Hammer, L. B. (2018). Do resources matter for employee stress? It depends on how old you are. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 107, 182-194.

Rineer, J. R., Truxillo, D. M., Bodner, T. E., Hammer, L. B., & Krainer, M. A. (2017). The moderating effect of perceived organizational support on the relationships between organizational justice and objective measures of cardiovascular health. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology26, 399-410.

Zaniboni, S., Truxillo, D. M., Rineer, J. R., Bodner, T. E., Hammer, L. B., & Krainer, M. (2016). Relating age, decision authority, job satisfaction, and mental health: A study of construction workers. Work, Aging and Retirement, 2, 428-435.

HammerL., Truxillo, D., Bodner, T., Rineer, J., Pytlovany, A., & Richman, A. (2015). Effects of a workplace intervention targeting psychosocial risk factors on safety and health outcomes: Psychosocial factors and workers health and safety. Biomed Research International special issue on Psychosocial Factors and Workers Health and Safety.

Bodner, T., Kraner, M., Bradford, B., Hammer, L., & Truxillo, D. (2014). Safety, health, and well-being of municipal utility and construction workers. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine56, 771-778.

 Leslie Hammer, PhD, Safety and Health Improvement Program Co-PI
Leslie Hammer, PhD (Co-PI)
Donald Truxillo, PhD
Donald Truxillo, PhD (Co-PI)
Safety, Health and Improvement Program Partners
Safety and Health Improvement Program study partners include, WFD Consulting, Portland Bureau of Transportation (PBOT), Portland Water Bureau, and Portland State University

To learn more about the toolkit components, such as the online training, behavior tracking and the Team Effectiveness activities or if your interested in implementing the SHIP toolkit in your organization, visit our  tools and toolkits website at or email

Download and use the SHIP poster and postcard to increase awareness about SHIP in your organization. 

Download the SHIP one-pager

National statistics report, more than

  • 40% of workers report that their job was very or extremely stressful
  • 25% view their jobs as the number one stressor in their lives
  • Job stress was a greater concern to worker health than either financial or family problems

Furthermore, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics over 3 million nonfatal workplace injuries/illnesses occur annually, which cost employers $1 billion per week in workers' compensation, plus other associated costs such as

  • Medical expenses
  • Legal services
  • Training replacement employees
  • Accident investigation
  • Lost productivity
  • Implementation of corrective measures

We developed SHIP to address these major organizational concerns and improve employee outcomes. 

"Employees were cautious at first but now they're the ones asking supervisors if they can revisit the team effectiveness goals. They're really enthusiastic."

-Suzanne Kahn, Maintenance Director, Portland Bureau of Transportation (PBOT)

1Zohar, D., & Luria, G. (2003). The use of supervisory practices as leverage to improve safety behavior: A cross-level intervention model. Journal of Safety Research, 34, 567-577. DOI: 10.1016/j.jsr.2003.05.0064

2Hammer, L. B., Kossek, E. E., Anger, W. K., Bodner, T., & Zimmerman, K. L. (2011). Clarifying work–family intervention processes: The roles of work–family conflict and family-supportive supervisor behaviors. Journal of Applied Psychology, 96, 134-150. DOI: 10.1037/a0020927
3Clifton, T. J., & Shepard, E. (2004). Work and family programs and productivity: Estimates applying a production function model. International Journal of Manpower, 25, 714-728. DOI: 10.1108/014377204105700368

4Hammer, L., Truxillo, D., Bodner, T., Rineer, J., Pytlovany, A., & Richman, A. (2015). Effects of a workplace intervention targeting psychosocial risk factors on safety and health outcomes: Psychosocial factors and workers health and safety [Special issue]. BioMed Research International, 1-12, DOI: 10.1155/2015/836967

5Hammer, L., Truxillo, D., Bodner, T., Pytlovany, A., Richman, A. & Rineer, J. (in preparation). LMX and Work-Family Intervention Effects.