Understanding the science behind DOHaD
The Moore Institute works to make the science of the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease more accessible to health care practitioners and the general public. One of the ways we do this is by shortening and clarifying academic studies into summaries we call "research briefs." Below are summaries of just a few of the thousands of scientific studies that explain how the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease predicts chronic disease risk later in life. We are continually adding to this collection.
- Breastfeeding in the First Days of Life and Blood Pressure at Age 3
The results of this large prospective cohort study show that any amount of breastfeeding ever, including early and limited breastfeeding in the first days of life, is associated with lower blood pressure at 3 years of age - independent of many potential maternal and infant confounders. Read more about why this finding matters.
- The Importance of Nutrition in Pregnancy and Lactation: Eat Better, Not More
Most women in the United States do not meet the recommendations for healthy nutrition and weight before and during pregnancy. Women and health care providers often ask what a healthy diet for a pregnant woman should look like. This topic has been the subject of much debate, and has produced inconsistent and sometimes confusing advice for pregnant women who are trying to do the right thing. In a recent paper, three OHSU researchers, along with 12 other national and international researchers, came to consensus about nutrition in pregnancy and during breastfeeding. Read more
- The Dutch Famine Cohort: Lessons Learned From 25 Years of Research into Long-Term Consequences of Prenatal Exposure to the 1944-1945 Dutch Famine
The Dutch famine took place in The Netherlands at the end of World War II. The Nazis had cut off food supplies to the western part of The Netherlands in retaliation for the exiled Dutch government supporting the Allies. Some twenty thousand people died and 4.5 million were affected by the direct and indirect consequences of the famine, which took place from November 1944 through May 1945. In addition to an exceptionally harsh winter, bad crops, and four years of brutal war, the population was forced to live on rations of 400-800 calories per day. People had to eat grass and tulip bulbs to survive. This research brief summarizes a 2021 journal article that reports on 25 years of research into the long-term health effects of the famine on the people who were in utero during the time it occurred. Read more
- When moms with asthma breastfeed longer, their babies are less likely to wheeze
Researchers sought to understand the impact breastfeeding has on respiratory health, particularly when the mother has asthma. Wheezing is one of the most common reasons infants see a healthcare provider or are hospitalized. Even transient wheezing is associated with reduced lung function and increased asthma risk in adolescence. The authors found that breastfeeding is an effective way to prevent infant wheezing. This study also identifies new information that contributes to the growing base of knowledge about the substantial health benefits breastfeeding confers. Read more
- Bidirectional Relationship Between Food Insecurity and Housing Instability
Both food insecurity and housing instability are associated with negative health outcomes in children and adults. The authors of this study found that families who experience food insecurity are at increased risk of experiencing housing instability, and vice versa, which they refer to as a bidirectional relationship. They also found that families who experienced both food insecurity and housing instability were more likely to be racial/ethnic minorities and be more socioeconomically disadvantaged. Read more
- Location during pregnancy affects fetal growth
Where a woman lives during her pregnancy can have consequences for her baby. At the OHSU Moore Institute, we often say, “while the mother is the environment for the baby, society is the environment for the mother.” In essence, the mother’s surroundings have a profound effect on her stress levels and her ability to access healthy opportunities, as she carries and grows the next generation. This research brief is about a study showing a direct link between the built environment where women lived while pregnant, and the birthweight of their babies. Birthweight is important, because DOHaD science has shown the link between low birthweight and an increased risk for chronic disease later in the baby’s life. In other words, the quality of a woman’s surroundings during pregnancy can predict health risks in her baby - the next generation. Read more
- The developmental origins of kidney disease
Kidneys are truly amazing. Within each one there is a world with millions of tiny filtering units called nephrons. These complex and delicate workhorses filter our blood and help remove waste and excess fluid from our bodies. Every day about 200 quarts of blood pass through our nephrons. The blood is filtered, cleaned and returned to our bloodstream. All except about two quarts, that is, which gets excreted as urine. Babies who are born small, whether premature or full-term with a low birthweight, have fewer of these filtering units. This puts them at risk for kidney disease later in life. However, there are ways to protect every precious nephron at birth and into childhood. Read more
- How the placenta responds to famine
The placenta is an amazing organ that provides oxygen and nutrients to the growing baby, filters waste, provides immune system protections and functions as a gland, secreting important hormones during pregnancy. Placentas grow in response to environmental influences on the mother, including her access to - or lack of - nutrition. This research brief is a summary of observations made on 2,414 placentas of births that took place from 1943-1947 at the Wilhelmina Gasthuis hospital in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. This time period covers the Dutch Hunger Winter of 1944-45, also known as the Dutch famine. The placental effects of the famine were documented in detailed records kept at the hospital. Read more
- How policy influences our health: analyzing policies through the DOHaD lens
Public health policies are designed to improve community health and safety in ways that benefit every person. These policies have the potential to address structural inequities in society, which are some of the most important determinants of human health. What if we were to analyze the impact policies have on human health, using a Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) lens? This is what researchers did, in a 2018 commentary in the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. Read more
- Stress and the placenta: why our social environment matters
The placenta provides all of the nutrient building blocks to create a new human being. Yet we actually know very little about it. It’s usually an afterthought – the afterbirth – something discarded and forgotten about. It turns out that growing an entire organ during pregnancy reveals more than we previously knew. Most importantly it determines how well the baby grows and is nourished. But there are numerous factors that help or hinder its ability to do its job – and many of these are related to the social environment of the mother. Read more
- Breastfeeding and the microbiome
Within our intestines is an ecosystem of some 100 trillion living microorganisms, including bacteria, viruses and fungi that play important roles like breaking down food, synthesizing vitamins and defending against pathogens - among other things. We call this ecosystem our intestinal ‘microbiome.’ It turns out that breastfeeding plays an important role in establishing a healthy microbiome in babies, which in turn has long-term implications for our overall health. Read more about a recent study that evaluated breastfeeding practices to determine how beneficial bacteria is shared from mother to baby.
- How boys grow in the womb can put them more at risk for hypertension later in life
In the womb, boys have a more dangerous growth strategy than girls. Boys grow more rapidly and invest less in placental growth, putting them at risk of becoming undernourished if maternal nutrients becomes scarce during pregnancy. Since the placenta both nourishes the baby and sustains itself, banking on adequate nutrition from the mother in lieu of a larger placenta is a risky strategy that can lead to hypertension later in life. Read more
- Maternal hypertension and pre-eclampsia are not only potential warnings for heart disease risk in the mother – but also in the offspring.
Women who’ve had pre-eclampsia are three to four times more at risk for high blood pressure later in life, and have double the risk for heart disease and stroke. They also have an increased risk of developing diabetes. This research brief provides an overview of a recent article published in the April 2020 edition of the Journal of the American Heart Association. Read more
- Weight at two years of age is linked to elevated risks for heart disease, insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome later in life.
Investigators tested the hypothesis that the levels of these three hormones in healthy 20-year-olds was related to their growth patterns in childhood. Read more about the results of this study, published in the February 2020 Journal of Endocrinology.