OHSU Health Information Library Topics
22q11.2 deletion syndrome is a genetic disorder marked by hypoparathyroidism, certain heart defects, and a cleft lip or palate.
Detailed information on abdominal aortic aneurysms, including description of abdominal aortic aneurysm, causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and full-color anatomical and procedure illustrations
Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair (tests & procedures)
Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair is a procedure used to treat an aneurysm (abnormal enlargement) of the abdominal aorta, which may be performed surgically through an open incision or in a minimally-invasive procedure called endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR).
Detailed information on amputation, including causes and types of rehabilitation programs for amputations
Coronary arteries supply blood to the heart muscle. There are two main coronary arteries: the right and the left.
The heart is a pump made of muscle tissue. Its pumping action is regulated by electrical impulses.
Detailed information on the dangers of aneurysm, how an aneurysm develops, and aneurysm diagnosis
Angina pectoris occurs when the heart muscle doesn't receive enough blood and oxygen for a given level of work.
An anomalous coronary artery is a coronary artery that has an abnormality or malformation.
Aortic stenosis affects the amount of blood that can flow from the left ventricle to the aorta. Symptoms vary with the degree of blockage.
An arrhythmia is an abnormal rhythm of the heart that can cause the heart to pump less effectively.
Detailed information on arrhythmias, including symptoms, types, diagnosis, and treatment
Atherosclerosis is a type of arteriosclerosis caused by a build-up of plaque in the inner lining of an artery.
Atrial fibrillation is a type of arrhythmia in which the electrical signals in the atria, or the two small chambers of the heart, are fired in a very fast and uncontrolled manner.
An atrial septal defect is an opening in the dividing wall between the two upper chambers of the heart known as the right and left atria.
AV canal is a complex heart problem that involves several abnormalities of structures inside the heart.
Audiologists measure and evaluate a person's ability to hear sounds, and specialize in the treatment of people with hearing disorders.
Bacterial endocarditis is an infection of the lining of the heart. This infection can occur in anyone who has congenital heart disease.
Located almost in the center of the chest, the adult human heart is about the size of two fists held side-by-side.
Here's a formula to help you figure out how many calories and fat grams you need each day to maintain your current weight.
Cardiac Catheterization (tests & procedures)
Cardiac catheterization is a procedure in which a catheter is moved through a blood vessel to the heart in order to better diagnose coronary heart disease, valvular heart disease, congestive heart failure and other heart conditions.
Detailed information on cardiac catheterization, including how is a cardiac catheterization performed and what happens after the test
These procedures are often used in the evaluation and treatment of cardiovascular disease.
Cardiac rehabilitation programs can be conducted while a person is a hospital inpatient or on an outpatient basis.
Cardiac sarcoma is a rare type of cancerous tumor that occurs in the heart.
Cardiomyopathy is any disease of the heart muscle in which the heart loses its ability to pump blood effectively.
Cardiomyopathy is any disease of the heart muscle in which the heart loses its ability to pump blood effectively.
Heart disease is one of the most serious health problems in the United States. Find out more facts and figures on this topic.
Carotid artery disease occurs when the carotid arteries, the main blood vessels that carry oxygenated blood to the brain, become narrowed.
Carotid Artery Duplex Scan (tests & procedures)
A carotid artery duplex scan is used to assess blockage or narrowing of the carotid arteries of the neck and/or the branches of the carotid artery.
Carotid Endarterectomy/Carotid Angioplasty with Stenting (tests & procedures)
Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) may be performed to treat a blockage or narrowing of the carotid arteries, thus improving blood supply to the brain. Carotid artery angioplasty with stenting (CAS) is a procedure currently being used on selected patients who are at high risk for surgery.
A cerebral aneurysm is a bulging, weakened area in the wall of an artery in the brain. This weak spot raises the risk that the artery wall will burst open.
Chaplains act as spiritual counselors to help patients and families through periods of crisis.
Chest X-ray (tests & procedures)
A chest X-ray is used to examine the chest and the lungs and other organs and structures located in the chest.
The cholesterol in your blood comes from the foods you eat and your liver—but your liver makes all of the cholesterol your body needs.
The cholesterol in blood comes from two sources: the foods your teen eats and his or her liver. The liver, however, makes all of the cholesterol your teen's body needs.
Rehabilitation services are provided in many different places, including hospitals, long-term care facilities, and community health centers.
Detailed information on chronic venous insufficiency, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and full-color anatomical illustrations
Detailed information on claudication, including causes, risk factors, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and a labeled, full-color anatomical illustration
A clinical social worker is a professional counselor who helps alleviate problems related to personal, family, or social situations.
Coarctation of the aorta refers to a narrowing of the aorta that restricts the amount of oxygen-rich blood that can travel to the lower part of the body.
When trying to make heart-healthy changes to your lifestyle and diet, it is helpful to know some basics about nutrition.
Detailed information on computed tomography scans, also called CT scan or CAT scan, including information on how the procedure is performed
When the heart or blood vessels near the heart do not develop normally before birth, a condition called congenital heart defect occurs.
Heart problems are the most common kind of birth defects. While children with some heart defects can be monitored by a doctor and treated with medicine, others will need to have surgery.
Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery (CABG) (tests & procedures)
Coronary artery bypass surgery is performed to treat a blockage or narrowing of one or more of the coronary arteries, thus restoring the blood supply to the heart muscle.
A person with coronary heart disease has an accumulation of fatty deposits in the coronary arteries. These deposits narrow the arteries and can decrease or block the flow of blood to the heart.
Detailed information on deep vein thrombosis and thrombophlebitis, including causes, risk factors, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and full-color anatomical illustrations
To improve your heart and lung fitness, aim for 30 to 60 minutes of aerobic exercise three to four times a week.
Your BMI gives a fairly accurate assessment of how much of your body is composed of fat.
The Choose My Plate plan from the federal government is a guideline to help you eat a healthy diet.
Dobutamine Stress Echocardiogram (tests & procedures)
A dobutamine stress echocardiogram is a diagnostic procedure in which an intravenous medication called dobutamine is used when an exercise stress test is not recommended. Dobutamine mimics the effects of exercise on the heart.
Down syndrome is a genetic disorder that includes a combination of birth defects, including some degree of mental retardation, characteristic facial features and, often, heart defects.
Echocardiogram (tests & procedures)
An echocardiogram is a procedure in which ultrasonic sound waves are used to assess the heart's function and structures.
One of the most important factors in a patient's recovery is family involvement and support in his or her rehab.
When an area of the brain is damaged, which typically occurs with a stroke, an impairment may result. An impairment is the loss of normal function of part of the body. Sometimes, an impairment may result in a disability, or inability to perform an activity in a normal way.
Eisenmenger’s syndrome primarily affects adolescents and adults with congenital heart defects that were repaired after their first birthday or that were never repaired.
Detailed information on an electrocardiogram (EKG) procedure, including how the procedure is performed, reasons for the procedure, and pre- and post-evaluation instructions
Electrophysiological Studies (tests & procedures)
When a problem develops with the heart’s rhythm, there may or may not be any symptoms. An electrophysiological study (EP study) is an invasive procedure that tests the heart's electrical system to determine the cause of the dysrhythmia.
A child's emotions can be affected by the way his/her family members cope with the illness, as well as other issues including the stress felt by the family.
Tests that may be used to help diagnose a stroke include a CT scan or MRI, and an electroencephalogram.
Exercise Echocardiogram (tests & procedures)
An exercise echocardiogram is a procedure in which ultrasound, or sound wave technology, is used to asses the heart's response to stress or exercise.
Exercise Electrocardiogram (tests & procedures)
An exercise ECG is a simple and fast procedure that is used to evaluate the electrical activity of the heart's response to stress or exercise.
It is always important to talk with your doctor before starting an exercise program, particularly if you have certain health conditions.
In up to 90 percent of cases of congenital heart defect, the cause is thought to be a combination of genetics and environment.
Femoral Popliteal Bypass Surgery (tests & procedures)
Femoral popliteal (also called femoropopliteal) bypass surgery is a surgical procedure that may be used to treat severe blockage due to plaque in the femoral artery. The femoral and popliteal arteries are located in the legs.
Through the blood vessels in the umbilical cord, the fetus receives all the necessary nutrition, oxygen, and life support from the mother through the placenta.
Fetal Ultrasound (tests & procedures)
Fetal ultrasound is a test used during pregnancy that creates an image of the fetus in the mother's uterus, or womb.
Gastric bypass surgery involves bypassing a part of the small intestine that absorbs nutrients. For this reason, these surgeries are referred to as malabsorptive procedures.
Gastric stapling surgery is a type of weight loss surgery that limits the amount of food a person can eat.
Glossary of terms relating to cardiovascular disease and heart healthy living
Children with congenital heart disease often grow and develop more slowly than other children.
A heart attack occurs when the blood supply is cut off from the heart muscle, usually because of a blood clot. Without blood and oxygen, the muscle cells are damaged and die.
Frequently asked questions regarding heart conditions in adults, including heart attack, cardiac arrhythmias, pacemakers, heart valve disease, Holter monitor, and cardiac rehabilitation
Detailed information on congestive heart failure, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Heart murmurs may be caused by a number of factors or diseases, including defective heart valves, fever, and pregnancy.
Your doctor may have told you your child has a heart murmur. While that can sound scary, there are many different kinds of heart murmurs. Some heart murmurs are not even related to heart disease.
Detailed information on heart transplant, including why a heart transplant is recommended, what is involved in heart transplant surgery, and long-term outlook for a child after a heart transplant
Heart Transplantation Procedure (tests & procedures)
A heart transplant is a surgical procedure performed to remove the diseased heart from a patient and replace it with a healthy one from an organ donor.
Heart valves can malfunction on one of two ways: They can fail to close completely, allowing blood to flow backward, or they can become damaged, limiting blood flow.
Heart Valve Repair or Replacement Surgery (tests & procedures)
Heart valve repair or replacement surgery is a treatment option when the heart valves become damaged or diseased and do not function properly.
Detailed information on heart healthy eating
Blood pressures vary depending on the age, height, weight, and gender of your child. Generally, blood pressure is low in infancy and rises slowly as children age.
High blood pressure, or hypertension, increases the risk for coronary heart disease (heart attack) and stroke (brain attack).
Hippocrates, the father of medicine, first recognized stroke over 2,400 years ago. At this time stroke was called apoplexy, which means "struck down by violence" in Greek.
Holter Monitor (tests & procedures)
When symptoms such as dizziness, fainting, low blood pressure, prolonged fatigue, and palpitations continue to occur without a definitive diagnosis obtained with a resting ECG, your physician may request an ECG tracing to be run over a long period of time, using a Holter monitor.
Hypoplastic left heart syndrome is a combination of several abnormalities of the heart and great blood vessels.
Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator (ICD) Insertion (tests & procedures)
During this procedure, an electronic device is inserted into the chest to help regulate electrical problems with the heart by providing either anti-tachycardia pacing (ATP) or shock therapy to prevent sudden cardiac arrest.
The main threat from Kawasaki disease comes from its effect on the heart and blood vessels.
Detailed information on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), including information on how the procedure is performed
Keeping extra weight off requires effort and commitment, just as losing weight does.
Marfan syndrome is a genetic disorder involving the body's connective tissue, including the heart, lungs, and spinal cord.
Detailed information on the medical management of vascular conditions, including description of the vascular system, risk factors for vascular conditions, causes of vascular conditions, medical management of risk factors, and full-color anatomical illustrations
Medical treatment can help with weight loss if your own efforts are unsuccessful—or if you have a medical condition that makes it crucial to lose weight.
Most people who have metabolic syndrome have insulin resistance. This may be a beginning of the development of type 2 diabetes.
Mitral valve prolapse is a condition in which blood leaks backward through the mitral valve in the heart. This backflow of blood may result in a heart murmur.
Myocardial Perfusion Scan, Resting (tests & procedures)
A resting myocardial perfusion scan in a procedure in which nuclear radiology is used to assess blood flow to the heart muscle and determine what areas have decreases blood flow.
Myocardial Perfusion Scan, Stress (tests & procedures)
A stress myocardial perfusion scan is used to assess the blood flow to the heart muscle when it is stressed by exercise or medication and to determine what areas have decreased blood flow.
Whatever treatment plan a person follows, losing weight slowly will be more effective and healthy over the long term.
List of online resources to find additional information on heart disease
Obesity is a serious, chronic disease that can inflict substantial harm to a person’s health. Learn about obesity causes and obesity health effects.
A pacemaker is a small device implanted under the skin that sends electrical signals to start or regulate a slow heartbeat.
Detailed information on living with a pacemaker or implantable cardioverter defibrillator
Stroke occurs when blood flow to the brain is disrupted. The disruption is caused when either a blood clot or piece of plaque blocks one of the vital blood vessels in the brain or when a blood vessel in the brain bursts.
Detailed information on vascular conditions, including a description of the vascular system, causes and effects of vascular disease, and a full-color anatomical illustration
Pacemaker Insertion (tests & procedures)
During a pacemaker insertio, a small electronic device is implanted in the chest (just below the collarbone) to help regulate electrical problems with the heart.
PDA is a heart problem in which the connection between the aorta and pulmonary artery remains open after birth, instead of closing as it should.
You as the patient and your family are the most important members of the rehabilitation team.
Percutaneous Transluminal Coronary Angioplasty (PTCA) and Stent Placement (tests & procedures)
During percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA), a special catheter (long hollow tube) is inserted into coronary arteries that are blocked as a result of coronary artery disease (CAD), restoring arterial blood flow to the heart tissue without open-heart surgery.
Pericarditis is inflammation of the pericardium, the thin sac (membrane) that surrounds the heart.
Pericarditis is inflammation or infection of the pericardium, the thin sac that surrounds the heart.
The physician who specializes in physical medicine and rehabilitation is called a physiatrist.
Physical therapists focus on restoring a patient's mobility (movement) and function, and preventing of further disability.
Detailed information on lifestyle changes necessary to lower your risk for heart disease
Given the chronic diseases and conditions associated with obesity and the fact that obesity is difficult to treat, prevention is extremely important.
These specialists work with the rehabilitation team to offer counseling and support for the patient and family.
PA is a serious heart defect in which the pulmonary valve does not allow blood to flow from the heart to the lungs to pick up oxygen.
Detailed information on pulmonary embolism, including a description of a pulmonary embolism and the circulatory system, symptoms, risk factors, causes, diagnosis, treatment, prevention, and 4 labeled, full-color anatomical illustrations
Pulmonary stenosis affects the leaflets of the pulmonary valve, making it difficult for blood to flow from the right ventricle to the lungs.
Radionuclide Angiogram, Resting (tests & procedures)
During this procedure, a small amount of radioactive substance is injected into the vein. Its progress through the heart is then traced with a special camera.
Radionuclide Angiogram, Resting and Exercise (tests & procedures)
During this procedure, a small amount of radioactive substance is injected into the vein. Its progress through the heart is then traced with a special camera to evaluate heart function. Doing this during rest and exercise assists the physician in comparing the differences in heart activity.
This disorder affects blood flow to the fingers and less frequently to the ears, toes, nipples, knees, or nose. Exposure to cold and emotional upset are the triggers.
Recreation therapists design programs to help patients develop social skills and learn to participate in leisure group activities.
Registered dietitians work with health care providers to calculate calorie and nutrient needs, design special diets, and offer other nutritional advice to patients.
Case managers usually don't provide direct patient care, but may work either as part of the rehab team or for the patient's insurance company.
Stroke rehabilitation works best when the patient, family, and rehabilitation staff works together as a team. Family members must learn about impairments and disabilities caused by the stroke and how to help the patient achieve optimal function again.
A rehabilitation nurse specializes in helping people with disabilities and chronic illness to reach their best function and health, and to adapt to an altered lifestyle.
Detailed information on renal vascular disease, including causes, risk factors, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and a full-color anatomical illustration
Respiratory therapists help treat and restore function for patients with airway and breathing problems.
Rheumatic heart disease is a condition in which the heart valves have been permanently damaged by rheumatic fever.
Rheumatic heart disease is a condition in which permanent damage to heart valves is caused by rheumatic fever.
The most important controllable risk factor for stroke is controlling high blood pressure. Blood pressure of 140/90 or higher can damage the arteries that supply blood to the brain.
Lack of physical activity has clearly been shown to be a risk factor for cardiovascular disease.
Signal-Averaged Electrocardiogram (tests & procedures)
During this procedure, the electrical activity of the heart is monitored over a period of several minutes in order to capture abnormal heartbeats which may occur only intermittently.
If you notice any of these symptoms, call 911 or your local emergency medical service immediately. Treatment for stroke is most effective when started as soon as possible.
Smokers not only have increased risk of lung disease, including lung cancer and emphysema, but also have increased risk of heart disease, stroke, and oral cancer.
A speech/language pathologist helps treat people with communication problems that result from disability, surgery, or developmental disorders. This specialist also treats people with swallowing disorders caused by stroke or brain injury.
Almost every 40 seconds in the United States, a person experiences a stroke.
Stroke occurs when blood flow to the brain is disrupted. A blood clot can block one of the vital blood vessels in the brain or a blood vessel in the brain can burst, spilling blood into surrounding tissues.
Detailed information on syncope, also called fainting, including causes, symptoms, diagnostic, and treatment information
Tetralogy of Fallot is a complex condition of several congenital heart defects.
Tilt Table Procedure (tests & procedures)
This is a diagnostic procedure often used to assess syncope (fainting) by creating changes in posture from lying to standing.
In this condition, the four pulmonary veins are connected somewhere besides the left atrium.
Detailed information on transesophageal echocardiography, also called TEE or heart scan with endoscopy, including reasons for the procedure, risks of the procedure, what to expect, and discharge instructions
Because of abnormal development of the fetal heart, the large vessels that take blood away from the heart to the lungs, or to the body, are improperly connected.
Although there is no cure for stroke, advanced medical and surgical treatments are now available, giving many stroke victims hope for optimal recovery.
In tricuspid atresia, the tricuspid valve, normally located between the right atrium and the right ventricle, does not develop properly.
Truncus arteriosus occurs when the aorta and the pulmonary artery fail to separate completely during fetal development.
Strokes are classified as either ischemic or hemorrhagic. Ischemic strokes are caused by blockage of an artery. Hemorrhagic strokes are caused by bleeding in the brain.
Ultrafast Computed Tomography (Ultrafast CT Scan) (tests & procedures)
Ultrafast CT, or electron-beam computed tomography (EBCT) can take multiple images of the heart within the time of a single heartbeat, and can detect very small amounts of calcium within the heart and the coronary arteries.
Valvuloplasty (tests & procedures)
During a valvuloplasty, a catheter is threaded through a vein to the heart where a balloon is used to open a stiff valve. Once opened, the balloon and catheter are removed.
Vascular Studies (tests & procedures)
Vascular studies use ultrasound (sound wave) technology to assess the flow of blood in arteries and veins in the arms, legs, and neck.
Venogram (tests & procedures)
A combination of contrast dye and X-rays are used to visualize the veins in the legs in order to diagnose deep vein thrombosis and other conditions.
A ventricular septal defect is an opening in the dividing wall between the two lower chambers of the heart known as the right and left ventricles.
Vital signs are useful in detecting or monitoring medical problems. Vital signs can be measured in a medical setting, at home, at the site of a medical emergency, or elsewhere.
Vocational rehabilitation counselors assist people with disabilities in planning careers and finding and keeping satisfying jobs.