Klaus Früh, Ph.D.

Viruses are masters at manipulating their host environment. Because they depend on host cells for their replication and on the host organism for their spread through the population, they have learned to manipulate the infected organism for their survival. The host, on the other hand, has developed highly efficient countermeasures against viral infection. In many cases a balance has been established; the host is able to control the viral pathogenicity but is unable to eradicate the virus, allowing it to continue infecting other individuals.

A prime example of this type of chronic infection under constant immune pressure is infection by viruses of the herpesvirus family. A large portion of the genomes of herpesviruses is devoted to changing the host environment of both the single host cell and the entire host organism. Klaus Früh and his staff have characterized several mechanisms in herpes simplex virus (HSV), simian varicella virus (SVV), human and rhesus cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV) by which these viruses sabotage major antiviral pathways such as antigen presentation by histocompatibility-complex molecules or interferon-induced virus-tethering molecules. More recently, his also began studying how human-pathogenic poxviruses such as cowpox and monkeypox viruses evade stimulation of the adaptive cellular immune response by T lymphocytes. Zoonotic infection by these viruses are increasing due to waning anti-poxvirus immunity in endemic regions.

In addition, Früh and his colleagues are applying the tools of functional genomics – chemogenomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, interactomics and small interfering RNA - to search in a systematic fashion for host targets that are modified during infection by Dengue virus and related flaviruses such as West Nile Virus. Applying these tools to in vitro systems that reflect important features of given viral infections, they identified novel host cell gene products that are crucial for viral survival or antiviral defense.

These studies also contribute to the development of improved vaccine vectors as well as novel immunomodulatory therapies. A particular focus of this translational research is the development of CMV as a new vaccine vector, a joint effort with Louis Picker, Jay Nelson and Patrizia Caposio. CMV-vectors are unique in their ability to induce lifelong immunity against heterologous pathogens. Since CMV vectors provided unparalleled protection against simian immunodefiency virus (SIV), current efforts are directed towards developing CMV vectors as new prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines against AIDS. In this context, the Früh lab investigates the molecular mechanisms that allow CMV to overcome pre-existing immunity and establish secondary persistent infections. Additional research is directed towards increasing the safety while maintaining the immunogenicity of CMV vectored vaccines.


Klaus Früh received his Ph.D. from the University of Heidelberg in 1990. From 1991 to 1994 he was a postdoctoral scientist at the Scripps Research Institute in La Jolla, California. In 1994 he joined the R.W. Johnson Pharmaceutical Research Institute, where he directed the antiviral pharmaceutical research program. In 2000 he joined the OHSU Vaccine and Gene Therapy Institute as associate professor and ONPRC as associate scientist, at the same time becoming director of the Microarray Shared Resource. He was promoted to Professor anSenior Scientist in 2005.


1: Malouli D, Nakayasu ES, Viswanathan K, Camp DG 2nd, Chang WL, Barry PA, Smith RD, Früh K. Reevaluation of the coding potential and proteomic analysis of the BAC-derived rhesus cytomegalovirus strain 68-1. J Virol. 2012 Sep; 86(17): 8959-73. PMCID: PMC3416160

2: Viswanathan K, Smith MS, Malouli D, Mansouri M, Nelson JA, Früh K.BST2/Tetherin enhances entry of human cytomegalovirus. PLoS Pathog. 2011Nov; 7(11): e1002332. PMCID: PMC3207899

3: Stein DA, Perry ST, Buck MD, Oehmen CS, Fischer MA, Poore E, Smith JL, Lancaster AM, Hirsch AJ, Slifka MK, Nelson JA, Shresta S, Früh K. Inhibition of dengue virus infections in cell cultures and in AG129 mice by a small interfering RNA targeting a highly conserved sequence. J Virol. 2011 Oct; 85(19): 10154-66.PMCID: PMC3196423

4: Wahl-Jensen V, Kurz S, Feldmann F, Buehler LK, Kindrachuk J, DeFilippis V, da Silva Correia J, Früh K, Kuhn JH, Burton DR, Feldmann H. Ebola virion attachment and entry into human macrophages profoundly effects early cellular gene expression. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2011 Oct; 5(10): e1359. PMCID: PMC3196478

5: Richards R, Scholz I, Powers C, Skach WR, Früh K. The cytoplasmic domain of rhesus cytomegalovirus Rh178 interrupts translation of major histocompatibility class I leader peptide-containing proteins prior to translocation. J Virol. 2011 Sep; 85(17): 8766-76. PMCID: PMC3165821

6: Eyster CA, Cole NB, Petersen S, Viswanathan K, Früh K, Donaldson JG. MARCH ubiquitin ligases alter the itinerary of clathrin-independent cargo from recycling to degradation. Mol Biol Cell. 2011 Sep; 22(17): 3218-30. PMCID: PMC3164467

7: Sugaya M, Reed S, Rose PP, de la Motte S, Raggo CM, Kurtz SE, Moses AV, FrühK, Blauvelt A. Kaposi's sarcoma and human dermal microvascular endothelial cells infected with Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus express CCL21. J Dermatol Sci. 2011 Feb; 61(2): 139-42. PMCID: PMC3399906

 8: Gustin JK, Moses AV, Früh K, Douglas JL. Viral takeover of the host ubiquitin system. Front Microbiol. 2011; 2: 161. PMCID: PMC3147166

9: Bartee E, Eyster CA, Viswanathan K, Mansouri M, Donaldson JG, Früh K. Membrane-Associated RING-CH proteins associate with Bap31 and target CD81 and CD44 to lysosomes. PLoS One. 2010 Dec 2; 5(12): e15132. PMCID: PMC2996310

10: Alzhanova D, Früh K. Modulation of the host immune response by cowpox virus. Microbes Infect. 2010 Nov; 12(12-13): 900-9. Review. PMCID: PMC3500136

11: Shum D, Smith JL, Hirsch AJ, Bhinder B, Radu C, Stein DA, Nelson JA, Früh K, Djaballah H. High-content assay to identify inhibitors of dengue virus infection. Assay Drug Dev Technol. 2010 Oct; 8(5): 553-70. PMCID: PMC2962577

12: DeFilippis VR, Sali T, Alvarado D, White L, Bresnahan W, Früh K. Activation of the interferon response by human cytomegalovirus occurs via cytoplasmic double-stranded DNA but not glycoprotein B. J Virol. 2010 Sep; 84(17): 8913-25. PMCID: PMC2919031

13: Viswanathan K, Früh K, DeFilippis V. Viral hijacking of the host ubiquitin system to evade interferon responses. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2010 Aug; 13(4): 517-23. Review. PMCID: PMC2939720

14: Douglas JL, Gustin JK, Viswanathan K, Mansouri M, Moses AV, Früh K. The great escape: viral strategies to counter BST-2/tetherin. PLoS Pathog. 2010 May 13; 6(5): e1000913. Review. PMCID: PMC2869331

15: Hansen SG, Powers CJ, Richards R, Ventura AB, Ford JC, Siess D, Axthelm MK, Nelson JA, Jarvis MA, Picker LJ, Früh K. Evasion of CD8+ T cells is critical for superinfection by cytomegalovirus. Science. 2010 Apr 2; 328(5974): 102-6. PMCID: PMC2883175

16: Früh K, Finlay B, McFadden G. On the road to systems biology of host-pathogen interactions. Future Microbiol. 2010 Feb; 5(2): 131-3. PMID: 20143936

17: DeFilippis VR, Alvarado D, Sali T, Rothenburg S, Früh K. Human cytomegalovirus induces the interferon response via the DNA sensor ZBP1. J Virol. 2010 Jan; 84(1): 585-98. PMCID: PMC2798427

18: Alzhanova D, Edwards DM, Hammarlund E, Scholz IG, Horst D, Wagner MJ, Upton C, Wiertz EJ, Slifka MK, Früh K. Cowpox virus inhibits the transporter associated with antigen processing to evade T cell recognition. Cell Host Microbe. 2009 Nov 19; 6(5): 433-45. PMCID: PMC2791678

19: Mansouri M, Viswanathan K, Douglas JL, Hines J, Gustin J, Moses AV, Früh K. Molecular mechanism of BST2/tetherin downregulation by K5/MIR2 of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus. J Virol. 2009 Oct; 83(19): 9672-81. PMCID: PMC2748026

20: Douglas JL, Viswanathan K, McCarroll MN, Gustin JK, Früh K, Moses AV. Vpu directs the degradation of the human immunodeficiency virus restriction factor BST-2/Tetherin via a {beta}TrCP-dependent mechanism. J Virol. 2009 Aug; 83(16): 7931-47. PMCID: PMC2715753

21: Vomaske J, Melnychuk RM, Smith PP, Powell J, Hall L, DeFilippis V, Früh K, Smit M, Schlaepfer DD, Nelson JA, Streblow DN. Differential ligand binding to a human cytomegalovirus chemokine receptor determines cell type-specific motility. PLoS Pathog. 2009 Feb; 5(2): e1000304. PMCID: PMC2637432

22: Powers CJ, Früh K. Signal peptide-dependent inhibition of MHC class I heavy chain translation by rhesus cytomegalovirus. PLoS Pathog. 2008 Oct 3; 4(10): e1000150. PMCID: PMC2542416

23: Mansouri M, Rose PP, Moses AV, Früh K. Remodeling of endothelial adherens junctions by Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus. J Virol. 2008 Oct; 82(19): 9615-28. PMCID: PMC2546942

24: Hammarlund E, Dasgupta A, Pinilla C, Norori P, Früh K, Slifka MK. Monkeypox virus evades antiviral CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses by suppressing cognate Tcell activation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Sep 23; 105(38): 14567-72. PMCID: PMC2567221

25: Pantanowitz L, Früh K, Marconi S, Moses AV, Dezube BJ. Pathology of rituximab-induced Kaposi sarcoma flare. BMC Clin Pathol. 2008 Jul 23; 8: 7. PMCID: PMC2515841

26: Powers C, Früh K. Rhesus CMV: an emerging animal model for human CMV. Med Microbiol Immunol. 2008 Jun; 197(2): 109-15. Review. PMCID: PMC2746484

27: Thibodeau J, Bourgeois-Daigneault MC, Huppé G, Tremblay J, Aumont A, Houde M, Bartee E, Brunet A, Gauvreau ME, de Gassart A, Gatti E, Baril M, Cloutier M, Bontron S, Früh K, Lamarre D, Steimle V. Interleukin-10-induced MARCH1 mediates intracellular sequestration of MHC class II in monocytes. Eur J Immunol. 2008 May; 38(5): 1225-30. PMCID: PMC2759377

28: Streblow DN, Kreklywich CN, Andoh T, Moses AV, Dumortier J, Smith PP, Defilippis V, Früh K, Nelson JA, Orloff SL. The role of angiogenic and wound repair factors during CMV-accelerated transplant vascular sclerosis in rat cardiac transplants. Am J Transplant. 2008 Feb; 8(2): 277-87. PMID: 18093265

29: Powers C, DeFilippis V, Malouli D, Früh K. Cytomegalovirus immune evasion. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2008; 325: 333-59. Review. PMID: 18637515

30: Viswanathan K, Früh K. Viral proteomics: global evaluation of viruses and their interaction with the host. Expert Rev Proteomics. 2007 Dec; 4(6): 815-29. Review. PMID: 18067418

31: Medigeshi GR, Lancaster AM, Hirsch AJ, Briese T, Lipkin WI, Defilippis V, Früh K, Mason PW, Nikolich-Zugich J, Nelson JA. West Nile virus infection activates the unfolded protein response, leading to CHOP induction and apoptosis. J Virol. 2007 Oct; 81(20): 10849-60. PMCID: PMC2045561

32: Rose PP, Bogyo M, Moses AV, Früh K. Insulin-like growth factor II receptor-mediated intracellular retention of cathepsin B is essential for transformation of endothelial cells by Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus. J Virol. 2007 Aug; 81(15): 8050-62. PMCID: PMC1951299

33: Streblow DN, van Cleef KW, Kreklywich CN, Meyer C, Smith P, Defilippis V, Grey F, Früh K, Searles R, Bruggeman C, Vink C, Nelson JA, Orloff SL. Rat cytomegalovirus gene expression in cardiac allograft recipients is tissue specific and does not parallel the profiles detected in vitro. J Virol. 2007 Apr; 81(8): 3816-26. PMCID: PMC1866122

34: Rose PP, Carroll JM, Carroll PA, DeFilippis VR, Lagunoff M, Moses AV, Roberts CT Jr, Früh K. The insulin receptor is essential for virus-induced tumorigenesis of Kaposi's sarcoma. Oncogene. 2007 Mar 29; 26(14): 1995-2005. PMID: 17001305

35: Dasgupta A, Hammarlund E, Slifka MK, Früh K. Cowpox virus evades CTL recognition and inhibits the intracellular transport of MHC class I molecules. J Immunol. 2007 Feb 1; 178(3): 1654-61. Erratum in: J Immunol. 2007 Apr 15; 178(8):5401. PMID: 17237415

36: Shibatani T, Carlson EJ, Larabee F, McCormack AL, Früh K, Skach WR. Global organization and function of mammalian cytosolic proteasome pools:  Implications for PA28 and 19S regulatory complexes. Mol Biol Cell. 2006 Dec; 17(12): 4962-71.PMCID: PMC1679665

37: Bartee E, McCormack A, Früh K. Quantitative membrane proteomics reveals new cellular targets of viral immune modulators. PLoS Pathog. 2006 Oct; 2(10): e107. PMCID: PMC1626102

38: Mansouri M, Douglas J, Rose PP, Gouveia K, Thomas G, Means RE, Moses AV, Früh K. Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus K5 removes CD31/PECAM from endothelial cells. Blood. 2006 Sep 15; 108(6): 1932-40. PMCID: PMC1635550

39: DeFilippis V and Früh K. Host cell targets for antiviral therapy: an update. Future Virology. 2006 July; 1(4): 509-518, doi 10.2217/17460794.1.4.509

40: Barry M, Früh K. Viral modulators of cullin RING ubiquitin ligases: culling the host defense. Sci STKE. 2006 May 16; 2006(335): pe21. Review. PMID:16705129

41: Barriere H, Nemes C, Lechardeur D, Khan-Mohammad M, Früh K, Lukacs GL. Molecular basis of oligoubiquitin-dependent internalization of membrane proteins in Mammalian cells. Traffic. 2006 Mar; 7(3): 282-97. PMID: 16497223

42: DeFilippis VR, Robinson B, Keck TM, Hansen SG, Nelson JA, Früh K. Interferon regulatory factor 3 is necessary for induction of antiviral genes during human cytomegalovirus infection. J Virol. 2006 Jan; 80(2): 1032-7. PMCID: PMC1346858

43: DeFilippis VR, Früh K.  Rhesus cytomegalovirus particles prevent activation of interferon regulatory factor 3.  J Virol. 2005 May; 79(10): 6419–31. PMCID: PMC1091669

44: Hirsch AJ, Medigeshi GR, Meyers HL, DeFilippis V, Früh K, Briese T, Lipkin WI, Nelson JA. The Src family kinase c-Yes is required for maturation of West Nile virus particles. J Virol. 2005 Sep; 79(18): 11943-51. PMCID: PMC1212629

45: Raggo C, Ruhl R, McAllister S, Koon H, Dezube BJ, Früh K, Moses AV. Novel cellular genes essential for transformation of endothelial cells by Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus. Cancer Res. 2005 Jun 15; 65(12): 5084-95. PMID: 15958552

46: Hassink G, Kikkert M, van Voorden S, Lee SJ, Spaapen R, van Laar T, Coleman CS, Bartee E, Früh K, Chau V, Wiertz E. TEB4 is a C4HC3 RING finger-containing ubiquitin ligase of the endoplasmic reticulum. Biochem J. 2005 Jun 1; 388(Pt2): 647-55. PMCID: PMC1138973

47: DeFilippis V, Früh K. Rhesus cytomegalovirus particles prevent activation of interferon regulatory factor 3. J Virol. 2005 May; 79(10): 6419-31. PMCID: PMC1091669

48: Shibatani T, David LL, McCormack AL, Früh K, Skach WR. Proteomic analysis of mammalian oligosaccharyltransferase reveals multiple subcomplexes that contain Sec61, TRAP, and two potential new subunits. Biochemistry. 2005 Apr 26;44(16):5982-92. PMID: 15835887

49: Pande NT, Powers C, Ahn K, Früh K. Rhesus cytomegalovirus contains functional homologues of US2, US3, US6, and US11. J Virol. 2005 May; 79(9): 5786-98. PMCID: PMC1082751

50: McAllister SC, Früh K, Moses AV. Functional genomics and the development of pathogenesis-targeted therapies for Kaposi's sarcoma. Pharmacogenomics. 2005 Apr; 6(3): 235-44. Review. PMID: 16013955

51: Nerenberg BT, Taylor J, Bartee E, Gouveia K, Barry M, Früh K. The poxviral RING protein p28 is a ubiquitin ligase that targets ubiquitin to viral replication factories. J Virol. 2005 Jan; 79(1): 597-601. PMCID: PMC538746

52: Rue CA, Jarvis MA, Knoche AJ, Meyers HL, DeFilippis VR, Hansen SG, Wagner M, Früh K, Anders DG, Wong SW, Barry PA, Nelson JA. A cyclooxygenase-2 homologue encoded by rhesus cytomegalovirus is a determinant for endothelial cell tropism. J Virol. 2004 Nov; 78(22): 12529-36. PMCID: PMC525102

53: McAllister SC, Hansen SG, Ruhl RA, Raggo CM, DeFilippis VR, Greenspan D, Früh K, Moses AV. Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) induces heme oxygenase-1 expression and activity in KSHV-infected endothelial cells. Blood. 2004 May 1; 103(9): 3465-73. PMID: 14726403

54: Bartee E, Mansouri M, Hovey Nerenberg BT, Gouveia K, Früh K. Downregulation of major histocompatibility complex class I by human ubiquitin ligases related to viral immune evasion proteins. J Virol. 2004 Feb; 78(3): 1109-20. PMCID: PMC321412

55: Park B, Kim Y, Shin J, Lee S, Cho K, Früh K, Lee S, Ahn K. Human cytomegalovirus inhibits tapasin-dependent peptide loading and optimization of the MHC class I peptide cargo for immune evasion. Immunity. 2004 Jan; 20(1): 71-85. PMID: 14738766

56: DeFilippis V, Raggo C, Moses A, Früh K. Functional genomics in virology and antiviral drug discovery. Trends Biotechnol. 2003 Oct; 21(10): 452-7. Review. PMID: 14512232

57: Mansouri M, Bartee E, Gouveia K, Hovey Nerenberg BT, Barrett J, Thomas L, Thomas G, McFadden G, Früh K. The PHD/LAP-domain protein M153R of myxomavirus is a ubiquitin ligase that induces the rapid internalization and lysosomal destruction of CD4. J Virol. 2003 Jan; 77(2): 1427-40. PMCID: PMC140772

58: Moses AV, Jarvis MA, Raggo C, Bell YC, Ruhl R, Luukkonen BG, Griffith DJ, Wait CL, Druker BJ, Heinrich MC, Nelson JA, Früh K. A functional genomics approach to Kaposi's sarcoma. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2002 Dec; 975: 180-91. PMID:12538164

59: Früh K, Bartee E, Gouveia K, Mansouri M. Immune evasion by a novel family of viral PHD/LAP-finger proteins of gamma-2 herpesviruses and poxviruses. Virus Res.2002 Sep; 88(1-2): 55-69. Review. PMID: 12297327

60: Moses AV, Jarvis MA, Raggo C, Bell YC, Ruhl R, Luukkonen BG, Griffith DJ, Wait CL, Druker BJ, Heinrich MC, Nelson JA, Früh K. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus-induced upregulation of the c-kit proto-oncogene, as identified by gene expression profiling, is essential for the transformation of endothelial cells. J Virol. 2002 Aug; 76(16): 8383-99. PMCID: PMC155158

61: Paulson E, Tran C, Collins K, Früh K. KSHV-K5 inhibits phosphorylation of the major histocompatibility complex class I cytoplasmic tail. Virology. 2001 Sep 30; 288(2): 369-78. PMID: 11601908

62: Simmen KA, Singh J, Luukkonen BG, Lopper M, Bittner A, Miller NE, Jackson MR, Compton T, Früh K. Global modulation of cellular transcription by human cytomegalovirus is initiated by viral glycoprotein B. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001 Jun 19; 98(13): 7140-5. PMCID: PMC34636

63: Früh K, Simmen K, Luukkonen BG, Bell YC, Ghazal P. Virogenomics: a novel approach to antiviral drug discovery. Drug Discov Today. 2001 Jun 1; 6(12):  621-627. PMID: 11408198

64: Gruhler A, Peterson PA, Früh K. Human cytomegalovirus immediate early glycoprotein US3 retains MHC class I molecules by transient association. Traffic. 2000 Apr; 1(4): 318-25. PMID: 11208117

65: Gruhler A, Früh K. Control of MHC class I traffic from the endoplasmic reticulum by cellular chaperones and viral anti-chaperones. Traffic. 2000 Apr; 1(4): 306-11. Review. PMID: 11208115

66: Huard B, Früh K. A role for MHC class I down-regulation in NK cell lysis of herpes virus-infected cells. Eur J Immunol. 2000 Feb; 30(2): 509-15. PMID: 10671206

67: Preckel T, Fung-Leung WP, Cai Z, Vitiello A, Salter-Cid L, Winqvist O, Wolfe TG, Von Herrath M, Angulo A, Ghazal P, Lee JD, Fourie AM, Wu Y, Pang J, Ngo K, Peterson PA, Früh K, Yang Y. Impaired immunoproteasome assembly and immune responses in PA28-/- mice. Science. 1999 Dec 10; 286(5447): 2162-5. PMID:10591649

68: Früh K, Gruhler A, Krishna RM, Schoenhals GJ. A comparison of viral immune escape strategies targeting the MHC class I assembly pathway. Immunol Rev. 1999 Apr; 168: 157-66. Review. PMID: 10399072

69: Früh K, Yang Y. Antigen presentation by MHC class I and its regulation by interferon gamma. Curr Opin Immunol. 1999 Feb; 11(1): 76-81. Review. PMID: 10047537

70: Schoenhals GJ, Krishna RM, Grandea AG 3rd, Spies T, Peterson PA, Yang Y, Früh K. Retention of empty MHC class I molecules by tapasin is essential to reconstitute antigen presentation in invertebrate cells. EMBO J. 1999 Feb 1; 18(3): 743-53. PMCID: PMC1171167

71: Chambers J, Angulo A, Amaratunga D, Guo H, Jiang Y, Wan JS, Bittner A, Früh K, Jackson MR, Peterson PA, Erlander MG, Ghazal P. DNA microarrays of the complex human cytomegalovirus genome: profiling kinetic class with drug sensitivity of viral gene expression. J Virol. 1999 Jul;73(7):5757-66. PMCID: PMC112636

72: Suh WK, Derby MA, Cohen-Doyle MF, Schoenhals GJ, Früh K, Berzofsky JA, Williams DB. Interaction of murine MHC class I molecules with tapasin and TAP enhances peptide loading and involves the heavy chain alpha3 domain. J Immunol. 1999 Feb 1; 162(3): 1530-40. PMID: 9973410

73: Blevitt JM, Früh K, Glass C, Jackson MR, Peterson PA, Huang S. A fluorescence-based high throughput screen for the transporter associated with antigen processing. J Biomol Screen. 1999; 4(2): 87-91. PMID: 10838416

74: Grandea AG 3rd, Comber PG, Wenderfer SE, Schoenhals G, Früh K, Monaco JJ, Spies T. Sequence, linkage to H2-K, and function of mouse tapasin in MHC class I assembly. Immunogenetics. 1998 Sep; 48(4): 260-5. PMID: 9716645

75: Tomazin R, van Schoot NE, Goldsmith K, Jugovic P, Sempé P, Früh K, Johnson DC. Herpes simplex virus type 2 ICP47 inhibits human TAP but not mouse TAP. J Virol. 1998 Mar; 72(3): 2560-3. PMCID: PMC109564

76: Ahn K, Gruhler A, Galocha B, Jones TR, Wiertz EJ, Ploegh HL, Peterson PA, Yang Y, Früh K. The ER-luminal domain of the HCMV glycoprotein US6 inhibits peptide translocation by TAP. Immunity. 1997 May; 6(5): 613-21. PMID: 9175839

77: Früh K, Ahn K, Peterson PA. Inhibition of MHC class I antigen presentation by viral proteins. J Mol Med (Berl). 1997 Jan; 75(1): 18-27. Review. PMID: 9020380

78: Ahn K, Angulo A, Ghazal P, Peterson PA, Yang Y, Früh K. Human cytomegalovirus inhibits antigen presentation by a sequential multistep process. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996 Oct 1; 93(20):  10990-5. PMCID: PMC38271

79: Armandola EA, Momburg F, Nijenhuis M, Bulbuc N, Früh K, Hämmerling GJ. A point mutation in the human transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP2) alters the peptide transport specificity. Eur J Immunol. 1996 Aug; 26(8):  1748-55. PMID: 8765016

80: Ahn K, Erlander M, Leturcq D, Peterson PA, Früh K, Yang Y. In vivo characterization of the proteasome regulator PA28. J Biol Chem. 1996 Jul 26; 271(30):  18237-42. PMID: 8663520

81: Ahn K, Meyer TH, Uebel S, Sempé P, Djaballah H, Yang Y, Peterson PA, Früh K, Tampé R. Molecular mechanism and species specificity of TAP inhibition by herpes simplex virus ICP47. EMBO J. 1996 Jul 1; 15(13): 3247-55. PMCID: PMC451885

82: Yang Y, Früh K, Ahn K, Peterson PA. In vivo assembly of the proteasomal complexes, implications for antigen processing. J Biol Chem. 1995 Nov 17; 270(46): 27687-94. PMID: 7499235

83: Früh K, Ahn K, Djaballah H, Sempé P, van Endert PM, Tampé R, Peterson PA, Yang Y. A viral inhibitor of peptide transporters for antigen presentation. Nature. 1995 Jun 1; 375(6530): 415-8. PMID: 7760936

84: Aschoff A, Kremer P, Benesch C, Früh K, Klank A, Kunze S. Overdrainage and shunt technology. A critical comparison of programmable, hydrostatic and variable-resistance valves and flow-reducing devices. Childs Nerv Syst. 1995 Apr; 11(4): 193-202. PMID: 7621479

85: Jackson MR, Früh K, Karlsson L, Teyton L, Yang Y, Peterson PA. Assembly and intracellular transport of MHC class I and class II molecules. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 1995; 60: 249-61. Review. PMID: 8824398

86: Wang K, Früh K, Peterson PA, Yang Y. Nucleotide binding of the C-terminal domains of the major histocompatibility complex-encoded transporter expressed in Drosophila melanogaster cells. FEBS Lett. 1994 Aug 22; 350(2-3): 337-41. Erratum in: FEBS Lett 1994 Oct 17; 353(2): 230. PMID: 8070589

87: Früh K, Gossen M, Wang K, Bujard H, Peterson PA, Yang Y. Displacement of housekeeping proteasome subunits by MHC-encoded LMPs: a newly discovered mechanism for modulating the multicatalytic proteinase complex. EMBO J. 1994 Jul 15; 13(14): 3236-44. PMCID: PMC395220

88: Suh WK, Cohen-Doyle MF, Früh K, Wang K, Peterson PA, Williams DB. Interaction of MHC class I molecules with the transporter associated with antigen processing. Science. 1994 May 27; 264(5163): 1322-6. PMID: 8191286

89: Schumacher TN, Kantesaria DV, Heemels MT, Ashton-Rickardt PG, Shepherd JC, Früh K, Yang Y, Peterson PA, Tonegawa S, Ploegh HL. Peptide length and sequence specificity of the mouse TAP1/TAP2 translocator. J Exp Med. 1994 Feb 1; 179(2): 533-40. PMCID: PMC2191358

90: Scarselli E, Tolle R, Koita O, Diallo M, Müller HM, Früh K, Doumbo O, Crisanti A, Bujard H. Analysis of the human antibody response to thrombospondin-related anonymous protein of Plasmodium falciparum. Infect Immun. 1993 Aug; 61(8): 3490-5. PMCID: PMC281027

91: Tolle R, Früh K, Doumbo O, Koita O, N'Diaye M, Fischer A, Dietz K, Bujard H. A prospective study of the association between the human humoral immune response to Plasmodium falciparum blood stage antigen gp190 and control of malarial infections. Infect Immun. 1993 Jan; 61(1): 40-7. PMCID: PMC302685

92: Früh K, Yang Y, Arnold D, Chambers J, Wu L, Waters JB, Spies T, Peterson PA. Alternative exon usage and processing of the major histocompatibility complex-encoded proteasome subunits. J Biol Chem. 1992 Nov 5; 267(31): 22131-40. PMID: 1429565

93: Yang Y, Früh K, Chambers J, Waters JB, Wu L, Spies T, Peterson PA. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-encoded HAM2 is necessary for antigenic peptide loading onto class I MHC molecules. J Biol Chem. 1992 Jun 15; 267(17): 11669-72. PMID: 1339432

94: Yang Y, Waters JB, Früh K, Peterson PA. Proteasomes are regulated by interferon gamma: implications for antigen processing. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992 Jun 1; 89(11): 4928-32. PMCID: PMC49201

95: von Brunn A, Früh K, Müller HM, Zentgraf HW, Bujard H. Epitopes of the human malaria parasite P. falciparum carried on the surface of HBsAg particles elicit an immune response against the parasite. Vaccine. 1991 Jul; 9(7): 477-84. PMID: 1716808

96: Früh K, Doumbo O, Müller HM, Koita O, McBride J, Crisanti A, Touré Y, Bujard H. Human antibody response to the major merozoite surface antigen of Plasmodium falciparum is strain specific and short-lived. Infect Immun. 1991 Apr; 59(4): 1319-24. PMCID: PMC257845

97: Müller HM, Früh K, Doumbo O, Lyon JA, Bujard H. The human antibody response against the major merozoite surface antigen of P. falciparum is mainly directed against non-conserved sequences. Behring Inst Mitt. 1991 Feb; (88): 157-60. PMID: 2049033

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