Since the Oregon Institute of Occupational Health Sciences began in 1988, there have been many accomplishments. Listed below are several of the ones we consider the most important. Below the "accomplishments" are a much larger number of “highlights” from the annual reports beginning in 2001 that document these accomplishments in more detail, as well as many others highlights over the years
In terms of the Institute's accomplishments, applied science generally refers to research performed directly in the workforce, such as comparisons of workplace interventions to improve health and/or safety. Often applied science is based on results from underlying basic laboratory science.
For example, our basic laboratory assessments of DNA damage induced by sunlight have led to laboratory-based techniques for repairing sunlight-induced DNA damage, proving the concept. The ultimate target is a clinical trial of a new therapy for the repair of DNA damage that may lead to skin cancer, thus preventing the cancer from developing in the first place.
This need for complementary basic and applied science has been an underlying tenet of Occupational Health Sciences research since it was formed in 1988. Furthermore, no research is worthwhile if the results are not published or announced or disseminated in a form useable in the workplace or for working people, termed “outreach."
Thus, Occupational Health Sciences performs research at many levels including basic laboratory science, human laboratory science, workplace interventions and outreach plus education. Current areas of research include prevention of injury, improving health (wellness research), cancer biology, rehabilitation from injury, and optimizing sleep and circadian rhythms to improve health, safety and performance at work.
Our accomplishments are listed by research or program area. Further details and a more comprehensive list of highlights appear in the annual reports beginning in 2001, which are available for download (see below).
The Oregon Institute of Occupational Health Sciences research/program areas include:
• Outreach, Education, Dissemination
• Workplace Interventions
• Genome Sciences
• Injury and Recovery of Nerves and Muscles
• Sleep and Circadian Rhythms
Outreach, Education, Dissemination
Information & outreach serves the our mission by interfacing with our Oregon stakeholders to provide opportunities for education, translation of the Institute's research and individual consultation.
Resources available to Oregonians: Scientific expertise; webinars; CROETweb.com, “Oregon & the Workplace” blog; social media; newsletters. Through these means we have provided the following programs and accomplishments (through 2012):
• Toxicology Information Center has provided individualized no-cost consultation on occupational safety and health on a free-to-Oregon call-in phone line (150-250 calls answered per year for over 15 years).
• Health & Safety Symposia provided in Oregon (2 per year for 20 years).
• Let’s Get Healthy! Lending Library wellness training and specific feedback on risks and healthier lifestyles that has been used in 20 Oregon communities is available for broad dissemination in Oregon workplaces.
• Summer Internships for College Students supported 10-15 interns/year for 20 years in the largest OHSU summer internship program and perhaps largest in the state.
• Exhibits and Presentations at all OR OSHA conferences + regional meetings for over 10 years
• Collaborations with government agencies, universities and associations throughout Oregon and the Northwest
• Investigation and Outreach on Emerging Issues led to the discovery of a hair smoothing product with undisclosed high levels of formaldehyde that was reformulated for use in the US and banned in some countries due to our initial discovery. Latest blog report one of top 3 NIOSH trending topics in 2012.
Workplace Interventions Program
• Established a widely-respected capacity to conduct Intervention Research that interacts with partners at all levels in Oregon. This capacity includes satisfying research requests from state (e.g., Management Labor Advisory Committee/MLAC, Workers' Compensation Division, Oregon OSHA) individual businesses and labor organizations, and high profile federally funded centers/programs (e.g., Oregon Healthy Workforce Center, Let’s Get Healthy, Fatality Assessment and Control Evaluation-FACE). Our research capacity encompasses other Oregon partners at OHSU, PSU, UO/LERC, OSU/School of Public Health, Kaiser Center for Health Research, Oregon Health Authority, St. Charles of Bend, and numerous other small colleges/universities through CROET’s summer intern program.
• Providing leadership in the creation of evidence-based “Total Worker Health” interventions that integrate health promotion with injury prevention. Recognizing that a healthy workforce is both safe and productive, Occupational Health Sciences showed national leadership by the creation of the SHIFT intervention for the at-risk population of truck drivers, which is the only published intervention to date (as of 2012) to improve ‘Total Worker Health’. SHIFT is a team weight loss competition supported by training and motivational interviewing. Over a 6 month period truck drivers significantly reduced body weight (by a mean of 7.8 pounds) and made medium to large (d = .49 - .88; >.80 is large) reductions in the consumption of sugary drinks and snacks, fast food, dietary fat, as well as hard braking events (recorded by truck engine; associated with fatigue and at-risk driving). The study won the intervention paper competition at Work, Stress, and Health (APA/NIOSH, 2009), and led to an R01 grant from NHLBI ($2.8 M) to conduct a randomized controlled trial of the intervention program.
• Developed the Let’s Get Healthy! interactive education and research exhibit in which people learn about research and the quality of their own lifestyle such as diet and exercise in feedback with recommendations. Sought by communities throughout Oregon as a health fair learning experience (43 fairs through 2012), the program has been adopted by St. Charles of Bend for their staff and is being integrated into Oregon school programs (e.g., St. Helens, West Linn, Wilsonville) to help their students, the workforce of the future, meet state health education standards. There have been 10,877 participants (through 2012), the program has loaned kits to 36 organizations, and there are 76 organizations in the queue who have requested a Let’s Get Healthy exhibit in the future. The program has been funded by 23 grants, with total funding of $2.2 M. Let’s Get Healthy selected by NIH for US Capitol Hill exhibits in 2011 and 2012.
• Invention of cTRAIN computer-based training software that is effective in teaching people with limited education (0 years) to advanced degrees for improving safety knowledge and skills. cTRAIN software is being disseminated along with an editing program so organizations can create their own training in this effective computer- and web-delivered format. Developed a commercial dissemination model to make the software and grant-supported training titles available through a company that now uses revenue (~$400K in awards) to evolve the software in the fast-developing PC and web delivery environments. The software has been a key component (well-reviewed) and funded by 1 OR OSHA grant, 10 multi-year federal grants, 1 Center grant, and 3 contracts to develop training (total awards of ~$6 M). This has led to the development of 20 different training titles completed by over 1200 trainees from uneducated field workers to executive managers in 15 industry sectors, all leading to learning (p<.05) and large effect sizes (d = 0.9 – 3.5); significant behavior improvement (e.g., safer pruning, improved floor cleanup to avoid slips; healthy food choices) was also recorded in some studies. Titles have been adopted by the Painter’s District Council Training facility in Portland to train all painter apprentices (for ~10 years) and drywall finisher apprentices.
Genome Sciences Program
• Developed patented technologies for repairing sunlight-induced DNA damage for the prevention of skin cancer. This is especially important for outdoor workers in Oregon since the State has one of the highest rates of melanoma skin cancer in the nation (ranking 8th in 2003) and a higher melanoma mortality rate than the national average (ranking 9th in 2004).
• Developed a comprehensive assessment program to identify and alleviate the toxic effects of cellular exposure to formaldehyde and similar compounds in order to prevent some types of cancers. Since Oregon had the 4th largest industrial release of formaldehyde in the nation in 2002 (latest data available), this is important to many workers and families living near those release points.
• Discovered a direct link between DNA damage associated with oxidative stress and obesity that suggests mechanisms to prevent age and diet-related illness. This discovery is significant since over 28% of Oregonians are obese and this condition leads to numerous health-related problems including diabetes and cardiovascular disease.
• Discovered that ionizing radiation induces complex types of DNA alterations including chromosome breakage and mutations. These observations could impact the incidence of leukemia and lung cancers including the estimated 350 Oregonians that get lung cancer due to radon exposure.
• Developed a new method to identify environmental toxins that can lead to gene silencing, a process in which an actively expressed gene unexpectedly turns off like a light bulb going from the on to the off position. Understanding these silencing events may give insight into mechanisms of cancer induction including breast cancer which affects approximately 5000 Oregonians and their families each year.
• Developed a rapid state-of-the-art drug discovery assay that has been used to screen over 400,000 bioactive molecules for inhibition of DNA replication. This represents the initial step in drug development that may improve therapeutic outcomes in a variety of cancer patients including those with gliomas that are among the most common form of brain cancer and generally regarded as incurable.
• Served on the advisory council for the National Institutes of Environmental Health Sciences through a multi-year commitment to provide leadership on policy decisions that guide national programs. This service provides important opportunities to represent environmental issues that are important for the health of Oregonians.
Nervous System Damage and Repair Program
• Identified proteins that coordinate nerve growth and muscle innervation during normal development and following injury. By determining the mechanisms of action of these proteins, we can develop new strategies to speed recovery, or even inhibit damage, from neuromuscular injuries, the major cause of workers’ compensation costs in Oregon.
• Identified that changes in intracellular calcium and action potential firing contribute to synchronizing the “internal” circadian clock to the environmental day-night cycle. Circadian and sleep cycle disruption is a major occupational hazard for the 50% of Americans who report day-time sleepiness. Abnormal sleep increases the risks for workplace accidents and degenerative diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease and obesity. In order to devise better treatments for circadian-based sleep, metabolic, and mood disorders current research is focused on characterizing the molecular mechanisms underlying the generation and timing of circadian rhythms.
• Discovered that mutations in the protein Neuropathy Target Esterase (NTE) increase the susceptibility to workplace neurotoxicants, including pesticides, by interfering with cell membrane composition and cell signaling leading to neurodegeneration or early aging.
• Discovered a compound that blocks channels in the brain that can provide a novel way to reduce the impact of Alzheimer's Disease. Alzheimer's Disease will affect 125,000 Oregonians by 2025.
• Best practices for pain management in patients with lower back pain. Researchers associated with CROET have documented the prevalence and comparative effectiveness of high-dose opioid use compared to other techniques used in the management of lower back pain. Lower back pain is one of the greatest expenses to workers compensation claims in Oregon.
Healthy sleep and circadian rhythms
• Identified changes in intracellular calcium and action potential firing that contribute to synchronizing the internal circadian clock to the environmental day-night cycle. Circadian and sleep cycle disruption is a major occupational hazard for the 50% of Americans who report daytime sleepiness. Abnormal sleep increases the risks for workplace accidents and chronic diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease and obesity. In order to devise better treatments for circadian-based sleep, and metabolic disorders, current research is focused on characterizing the molecular mechanisms underlying the generation and timing of circadian rhythms.
• Identified genetic mechanisms by which disruption of the internal circadian clock accelerates neurodegeneration and shortens life span (in flies). Internal circadian clocks generate rhythms in physiological and behavioral processes. Disruption of circadian rhythms significantly reduces the lifespan of flies and can accelerate the onset of brain pathologies. Such data may have relevance to the long-term adverse health effects of shift work in humans, as internal circadian rhythmicity becomes disrupted by shift work.
• Identified probable mechanisms underlying the fact that many diseases are worse at different times of day and night (e.g., heart attacks and stroke occur most frequently in the morning, and asthma is generally worst at night). Occupational Health Sciences researchers, along with collaborators at Harvard Medical School in Boston, have performed pioneer studies to examine how daily patterns of disease severity change across the day and night – in relation to the timing of the internal circadian clock and the ongoing stresses and behaviors that recur on a daily basis. Recent findings demonstrate the importance of the internal circadian clock on most aspects of cardiovascular control including blood clotting, blood pressure regulation and heart rate control, pulmonary function, bronchoconstriction in asthma, and even appetite regulation. Furthermore, misalignment of the circadian and behavioral cycles – as occurs with shift work was shown to lead to impairment of glucose regulation, possibly explaining the increased risk of obesity and diabetes in shift workers. The ultimate goal is to understand the biological basis behind these time-variant changes in disease severity in order to provide better therapy (e.g. appropriately timed medication to target specific phases of the body clock or to coincide with specific behaviors that cause vulnerability, such as exercise).
Occupational Health Sciences brings federal dollars into the Oregon economy
We receive base operations funding from the Oregon Workers’ Compensation System, and we leverage these funds to obtain federal and other research dollars. For every dollar invested by the State’s Workers’ Benefit Fund in 2012 and 2013, our scientists brought an average $1.70 and $2.40, respectively, of federal grant funding into the Oregon economy. Federal dollars for research in Oregon have a significant positive impact on the state’s economy. Expenditures for goods and services, as well as the salaries of scientific and support personnel, produce a multiplier effect on the purchase of goods and services and creation of businesses that support the needs of Oregon’s research institutions. Research coming out of the Institute can have a positive impact on the state’s economy from new technologies and jobs that spin off from productive research.
Total Worker Health: Improving Workforce Safety, Health, Wellness and Wellbeing
The Oregon Healthy Workforce Center (OHWC), a National Institute for Occupational Safety and HealthCenter of Excellence in Total Worker Health™, is an affiliation of Oregon Health & Science University’s Oregon Institute of Occupational Health Sciences (OHWC home) and Health Promotion and Sports Medicine, Portland State University’s Occupational Health Psychology program, the University of Oregon’s Labor Education Research Center, Oregon State University’s College of Public Health and Human Sciences and the Kaiser Center for Health Research.
OHWC faculty and staff are developing and evaluating Total Worker Health™ intervention programs that integrate safety, health, wellness and wellbeing into integrated or associated programs designed to reduce injuries and improve wellness. They accomplish this by increasing healthy eating and exercise and reducing work stress through workplace interventions. The OHWC serves as a resource for western states and supplements the other Centers of Excellence in New England (Connecticut/Massachusetts), at Harvard and Iowa.
The OHWC’s theme is intervention effectiveness using team-based and technology-based interventions to promote and protect health, and is designed to be disseminated broadly to the workplace. The OHWC’s overarching conceptual model predicts that interventions will lead to changes in knowledge and psychosocial factors that mediate or moderate hazard reductions and behavior change. This will in turn produce hazard reductions, safer work behavior, improved lifestyle choices, and better psychological and physical health. The OHWC is the only Center focusing on intervention effectiveness, successfully conducting randomized trials of innovative interventions and adding value with a cross-study database (Data Repository) of common measures across projects.
The OHWC program consists of the following four research projects, two initially conceptualized as translational projects, educational programs and outreach that are interrelated.
Creating Health and Safety “Communities of Practice” for Home Care workers – Dr. Ryan Olson is using a peer-led scripted curriculum to organize home care workers into neighborhood-based teams that provide education and social support for improving lifestyle (e.g., diet, exercise) and safety behaviors. The program is named COMPASS (COMmunity of Practice And Safety Support). In partnership with the Service Employees International Union Local 503 and the Oregon Home Care Commission, the Olson team developed and pilot-tested COMPASS. Pilot study team meetings were well attended (90% attendance), rated as enjoyable, and produced large knowledge gains. The intervention produced statistically significant improvements in well being, fruit and vegetable consumption, safety compliance scores and counts of specific safety actions in homes, including the adoption of new ergonomic tools (example shown here). During 2013, over 140 participants were enrolled in a randomized trial of COMPASS that includes measurement of health and safety factors at baseline, after 6 months, and after 12 months.
Safety & Health Improvement Program (SHIP) – Dr. Leslie Hammer (PSU) is training supervisors to use a team-based approach to restructure work processes to make them more efficient and support balance in employee’s work-family demands, thus reducing stress and improving safety and wellness in City of Portland construction workers. The intervention included a supervisor computer-based training component that focused on supervisor support for work-life and safety; a supervisor behavior tracking component to increase the transfer of the computer-based training to on the job behaviors; and a team-based component that involved facilitated sessions aimed at the reduction of low-value work within the work group to allow more time to encourage supportive behaviors related to safety and health. SHIP was delivered to 10 group supervisors and teams at the Portland Water Bureau and 12 groups at the Portland Bureau of Transportation in 2012. Following the intervention, 388 participants completed assessments of the effectiveness of the intervention at 6 months and 336 participants completed the assessments at 12 months. In addition, 16 groups of controls received SHIP training in 2013. SHIP identified psychosocial risk factors and health and wellness outcomes within this population including the prevalence of injury, unhealthy levels of body fat, and at-risk blood pressure.
Health promotion intervention to reduce health risks among correctional officers (DOC) – Dr. Kerry Kuehl (OHSU) is using a 12-week team-based peer-led approach to improve lifestyle (e.g., diet) choices and safety (e.g., ergonomic issues) in corrections workers. 210 baseline risk assessments on correctional officers from the Oregon State Penitentiary, Oregon State Correctional Institute, Columbia River Correctional Institution and Santiam Correctional Institution were completed in 2012. Post-intervention testing in 2013 demonstrated significantly lower blood pressure, total cholesterol, percent body fat, and improved dietary behaviors among the intervention group as compared to the control group.
Safety and Health Promotion in Young Workers (PUSH) – Dr. Diane Rohlman is using internet-delivered training to foster healthy lifestyle choices and safe work practices in young summer workers in a Parks and Recreation department, and enhancing dissemination by using social media. In 2012, Dr. Rohlman conducted surveys with 210 Portland Parks and Recreation summer youth employees, developed online training for use on social networking sites (Tumblr, Facebook, Pinterest), piloted it with 700 young workers, and recruited 300 young workers into a randomized control trial. In 2013, young workers who received the PUSH training significantly increased knowledge of safety and health immediately following training and at 2 months post-training. Reaction scores from participants who took the PUSH training indicated 59% of young workers “really enjoyed participating in the training” and 60% agreed that the training was “extremely useful for improving [their] health and safety.” Additionally, 63% reported changing one or more of their behaviors as a result of participating in the training program, and 67% agreed they would highly recommend the training to their coworkers.
Supervisor training to promote health/safety in construction (Latino+non-Latino) - Dr. Kent Anger is enhancing supervisor team building and training skills, supported by behavior tracking technology, to motivate their employees to adopt healthier lifestyle choices and safer work practices, in Latino and non-Latino supervisors in the construction industry. Funded in 2012, Dr. Anger developed the training and a structured 12-week approach to wellness for employees (pictured). Reactions to the wellness training were positive in 9 International Union of Painters and Allied Trades apprentices and improvements in several wellness measures and team cohesion were seen in the apprentices.
OHWC Pilot Projects funded in 2012 and 2013
Be Active, Work Safe: A Novel Program for People with a Disability –Drs. Laurel Kincl and Simon Driver (OSU) are working to improve the health and safety of workers with disabilities through the development, testing and dissemination of a web-based intervention that integrates basic occupational health and safety skills into an evidence-based health promotion model. Experts and individuals with a disability evaluated the preliminary testing of content and delivery of the Be Active, Work Safe program. Based on the feedback, changes to the organization (e.g., participant progression through the program), layout (e.g., navigation), and content (e.g., behavior change activities) were made to better meet the needs of individuals with a disability in 2013.
Family-Supportive and Safety-Supportive Supervisor Behavior Training in Corrections Personnel – Dr. Charlotte Fritz is conducting a trial of a family and safety-supportive supervisor behavior training to reduce employee stress and increase employee work-life balance, well being, and safety and health behaviors in corrections personnel. This project was funded in 2013.
OHWC Outreach and Education
Outreach is provided through 1) traditional paper-based newsletters and annual reports that are also electronically available, 2) exhibits at 10-15 practitioner and scientific meetings per year, 3) blog, facebook and twitter postings, 4) CROETweb resource directory (~70,000 hits in 2013), 5) leading sponsorships of wellness conferences leveraging Oregon Institute of Occupational Health Sciences funding, to promote Total Worker Health™. Some of the highlights of our Outreach activities include:
• Held a Partner’s Luncheon in 2012 that drew over 130 registrants from diverse industries, government and labor addressing return on investment of wellness programs.
• In 2012-13, outreach coordinators Dede Montgomery and Steve Hecker brought major national/international speakers on Total Worker Health™ (Ron Goetzel, Larry Chapman, Dov Zohar, Joseph Hurrell, Arla Day, Sandy Hershcovis, Steven Shea, Orfeu Buxton) to the OHWC Partners Luncheon, Occupational Health Psycholoy Summer Institute, and Symposia/webinars.
• Recruited 8 summer interns at the Oregon Institute of Occupational Health Sciences in first two years – the best applied research poster award was received by OHSU interns in 2012, 2013.
• In 2013 the OHWC presented a peer-reviewed symposium describing research projects and ongoing data collection at the International Work, Stress, and Health conference in Los Angeles, CA.
• Presented invited seminars at regional Centers to increase visibility and understanding of Total Worker Health™ (University of Washington, Washington State University, WESTon).
• Presented invited seminars at other NIOSH Centers outside the West (e.g., Mountain and Plains ERC, NIOSH Cincinnati Total Worker Health™ Seminar series).
• Presented at National meetings to increase visibility of Total Worker Health™ (e.g., Work, Stress, and Health, American Public Health Association).
Collaborative Activities with Other NIOSH Total Worker Health Projects in 2012-2013
• Established connection with 2 NIOSH Total Worker Health Centers (New England, Iowa) to develop a multi-center total worker health collaboration intervention for emergency services and corrections workers.
• In 2013, a national conference on corrections research needs was planned with other Centers in New England and Washington state.
OHSU Let’s Get Healthy! Program
Let’s Get Healthy! is a popular education and research exhibit that travels around the state (and nation) to help the public learn about their own health and to collect data that is available for group analysis. Participants receive immediate personalized (multi-lingual) health feedback while their anonymous, linked health information becomes part of a population database available for use in support of school projects, community and workplace wellness policy decisions, and research opportunities. The program accomplishes this by providing an interactive, scientifically-based educational and research experience to schools, communities and workplace partnerships. In 2013, Let’s Get Healthy!
• Held 15 events in Oregon and two in California where 4,718 people partiticipated in the research study, and trained 328 volunteers to assist with the research study.
• Conducted 18 events in Oregon through lending library loans, reaching an additional 1395 Oregonians.
• Held two teacher professional development sessions (56 contact hours each) on 1) epigenetics and 2) data visualization for the classroom.
• Enrolled an additional 485 people in a longitudinal study of cardiovascular health in women.
Sleep and Shift Work: Impact on Health, Safety, and Productivity
Adequate sleep is not only essential for our safety and productivity but also for our overall well-being and health. It is well known that a tired person is more likely to be involved in an accident, have reduced motivation, poor mood, and strained relationships at home and at work. More recently it has become evident that there are more chronic diseases such as obesity, diabetes, hypertension and stroke among people who sleep less. Unfortunately, sleeping too little is easy and sometimes hard to avoid. Sleep can be disrupted by stresses at home and work, lifestyle choices, by occupational constraints such as shift work, and by sleep disorders themselves – such as sleep apnea and insomnia.
With night-shift work, we try to fight our natural biological tendencies to remain awake when we are normally expecting to sleep, and to sleep when the body is designed to be most alert. These challenges can be large. But sleep disorders can be treated, sleep habits can improve, and workplace schedules and the internal body clock (the circadian pacemaker) can both be manipulated to improve the health and productivity of shift workers.
At Occupational Health Sciences, we are developing a research program to study all aspects of these large and common sleep problems and to implement solutions, ranging from screening for and treating sleep disorders, educating communities and workforces about ‘sleep health’, to implementing interventions designed to improve sleep, safety, productivity and overall health in the workplace.
In order to adapt to different shift work schedules, we need to understand how the body clock works, and how to reset the timing of the clocks in the brain and throughout the body so that we function optimally. By studying animals, Dr. Charles Allen and his research team are studying how the internal circadian pacemaker in the brain functions, and the neural mechanisms that govern re-setting this internal body clock. Dr. Doris Kretzschmar’s research group uses fruit-flies (Drosophila) to study how circadian rhythms and genes that regulate the circadian system affect healthy aging and neural degeneration, typical of Alzheimer’s disease. By performing laboratory studies in humans, Dr. Steven Shea is building on some of this animal research to determine the extent to which similar body-clock and sleep loss issues may help explain the adverse health effects of shift work.
Dr. Matthew Butler is a new faculty member whose research is directed towards understanding the synchronization between environmental cues, the brain’s 24-hour clock, and the clocks in other tissues like the heart and liver.
Dr. Mitchell Turker’s research group is examining how sleep loss and circadian rhythms influence the changes in genes caused by the environment (epigenetics).
Other Institute researchers, including Drs. Ryan Olson, Jackie Shannon and Kerry Kuehl (Institute affiliate), are translating these laboratory studies to perform monitoring and interventions onsite in a number of occupations. Specifically, they are examining the impact of work on sleep in nurses, truckers, information technology workers, and correctional officers, and are applying interventions to improve sleep, safety, and health in some of these groups.
Finally, Occupational Health Sciences’ Let’s Get Healthy! Program is a popular interactive exhibit used in the workplace, schools and community health fairs to educate people about many health issues, including sleep health. Let’s Get Healthy! is also used for data collection in these groups to help with ongoing research.
Thus, Occupational Health Sciences is developing a research theme related to improving health, safety and productivity among workers by targeting sleep and shift work. This theme spans basic research in animals, laboratory research in humans, and applied workplace interventions. All of these research endeavors complement each other and improve overall likelihood of success in this area of The Institute’s mission.
Exposure: Consequences and Prevention
Many occupational exposures that lead to adverse health effects are preventable or can be minimized. For example, we know that prolonged unprotected exposure to sunlight causes skin cancer, and that chronic exposure to toxic chemicals can adversely affect a variety of organs within the body. To reduce risks associated with such exposures, Institute researchers are using cutting edge science to:
• Characterize the adverse effects of exposure.
• Determine the mechanisms by which these exposures produce adverse effects.
• Apply that information to develop specific worker training and other innovative strategies to help prevent the exposures in the first place and to reduce the adverse consequences if exposures do occur.
The role of exposure in cancer, aging and other diseases
Throughout life, humans are exposed in both their personal and occupational environments to ultraviolet light irradiation, ionizing radiation and a multitude of chemicals that can lead to debilitating diseases, including cancer. This area of investigation is the subject of two investigators in the Institute, Dr. Amanda McCullough and Dr. Stephen Lloyd. One part of Dr. McCullough’s group studies how chemicals such as formaldehyde (which is used extensively in industry in Oregon) cause DNA damage and disease. Her research team has studied how exposure to formaldehyde produces DNA damage that manifests as chromosomal alterations that resemble those seen in certain cancers. Her group is probing the genetic basis by which cells respond to the formation of formaldehyde-induced DNA-protein cross links.
Dr. McCullough’s group also leads a highly translational research effort that is designed to prevent skin cancers that arise as a consequence of sunlight exposure. This strategy relies on significantly enhancing the DNA repair capacity of the skin’s most susceptible cell population such that these basal keratinocytes can rapidly repair the sunlight-induced damage and maintain a healthy immune environment in the skin. Together with Dr. Lloyd’s group, they are hoping to partner with clinicians at OHSU to treat organ transplant patients who are extremely susceptible to this form of cancer.
Dr. Lloyd’s research group not only investigates how occupational chemical exposures affect human health, but also how drugs administered as part of therapeutic protocols also cause genetic damage. For example, many of the chemotherapeutic drugs that are used to treat cancers form the same type of DNA damage caused by industrial pollution and occupational toxicants. The Lloyd laboratory has shown these chemicals can cause DNA damage that, if not repaired, can lead to further genetic changes that further promote disease.
Dr. Lloyd’s group also has discovered that oxidant stress which results in specific DNA damage can serve as a trigger for alterations in energy metabolism. They have discovered that changes in DNA repair mechanisms can significantly alter how the body processes caloric intake and can shift the metabolism toward a fat storage mechanism. These studies are providing novel insights into understanding the complexities of the ongoing obesity epidemic.
Mutagenesis is the study of how the function of genes can change due to alterations in the DNA sequence. In contrast, epigenetics is the study of how the function of genes can change even without changes in the underlying DNA structure. Environmental exposures can cause both mutational and epigenetic changes. Dr. Mitchell Turker is researching the mechanisms by which such changes in ‘gene expression’ from these exposures cause disease. The Turker laboratory has:
• Developed new approaches to demonstrate the mutagenic effects of exposure to ionizing radiation, such as from radon exposure or X-rays.
• Developed new assays that foster discovery of new drugs for the treatment of cancer and other diseases.
• Shown that low oxygen conditions and ionizing radiation exposures cause epigenetic changes.
Agriculture contributes hugely to the Oregon economy. Pesticides are commonly applied to prevent crop losses, but exposure to high levels of many of these pesticides can damage the nervous system of humans and other animals – they are ‘neurotoxic’. Drs. Diane Rohlman and Kent Anger are measuring the exposures and working to reduce or prevent adverse effects from pesticide exposure. They have demonstrated that:
• Repeated workplace exposure to the commonly used insecticide called chlorpyrifos can affect the nervous system based on tests of memory and attention. Dr. Rohlman’s and Anger’s research team quantified the relationship between the exposure level and this neurotoxic effect, i.e., the dose-response relationship. Chlorpyrifos now joins only six other human neurotoxicants whereby chronic or repeated low-level exposures have been shown to cause such neurotoxic effects based on behavioral testing.
• In parallel research, Dr. Doris Kretzschmar’s team, using the fruit fly (Drosophila) as a model, discovered that the activity of certain proteins is reduced by exposure to a broad class of organophosphorus chemicals, like the pesticide chlorpyrifos.
Dr. Desire Tshala-Katumbay is advancing our understanding of toxicant-induced neurodegeneration through basic and global translational research; his research team has:
• Discovered the specific chemical structures within industrial hydrocarbon chemicals that induce neurotoxicity. These findings will aid the development of test methods for diagnosing and preventing chemically-induced neurological disease.
• Examined the neurotoxic effects of cyanide. Cyanide is a chemical used in many industrial settings, in some warfare settings to which US military could be exposed, and occurs during digestion of some foods, such as the Cassava root. From studies in both Oregon and the Democratic Republic of the Congo in Africa, Dr. Tshala-Katumbay’s team has determined the far reaching neurotoxic effects of exposure to dietary-derived cyanide, and they have examined how specific genetic differences between individuals results in different degrees of susceptibility to these neurotoxic effects. These studies will aid in the prevention and treatment of disease from exposure to a variety of industrial and other compounds with cyanide-like activity.
• Exploited the physico-chemical properties of neurotoxicants to develop a peptide-targeting system that is able to deliver small molecules selectively to neurons, thereby circumventing the hurdles posed by the blood brain barrier in the routine exercise of drug administration. The peptides may be injected intramuscularly.
Strategies and Solutions for Vulnerable Workers
Vulnerable workers, including young workers, agriculture workers and solitary workers, have special challenges that may contribute disproportionately to Workers’ Compensation costs. Institute scientists are developing unique programs to address the needs of vulnerable workers and prevent adverse consequences. Workplace stressors, physical and emotional, as well as the threat of physical violence, are significant hazards to employee health and safety. These stressors can be particularly hazardous to solitary workers who face workplace hazards alone and without the support of co-workers. Dr. Kent Anger, in collaboration with Dr. Nancy Glass of Johns Hopkins University:
• Developed an intervention program to teach home care workers how to de-escalate potentially violent situations in the workplace. The program is being evaluated to determine the extent to which it can be extended and disseminated widely to workers in other occupations.
Dr. Diane Rohlman is interested in protecting the health and safety of vulnerable workers, including: agricultural workers, who are subjected to a variety of stressors, including physical and chemical hazards, limited access to medical care, and seasonal variations in work-demand that lowers their sense of control in the workplace; young workers, who suffer twice as many non-fatal injuries at work than older workers due in part to their lack of training and assertiveness; and nail salon workers, the vast majority of whom are immigrants, who are exposed daily to a variety of chemical hazards. In 2012, Dr. Rohlman:
• Completed a pilot project examining workplace stress among farmworkers in Oregon.
• Conducted a survey of young workers to characterize their health promotion and workplace safety activities.
• Developed workplace safety and wellness activities to be used with immigrant and non-immigrant supervisors of construction workers. Methods were tested in electrical and painter apprentice programs.
• Helped coordinate ongoing health and safety activities in collaboration with social service agencies and the Oregon Collaborative for Healthy Nail Salons on behalf of nail salon workers.
Dr. Ryan Olson is developing and testing safety and health interventions for solitary workers in demanding occupations, with the goal of reducing the unique hazards of isolated work, preventing injuries, and promoting health. Employees, such as truck drivers or home health care workers who work alone, are among the most at risk for on the job injuries.
In 2012-13, Dr. Olson:
• With funding from the National Heart Blood and Lung Institute (NHLBI), partnered with five trucking companies, including companies from Oregon and the Pacific Northwest, to launch the largest randomized controlled trial of a worker health intervention for truck drivers in U.S. history (over 450 drivers from 22 terminals were enrolled). The intervention program, named SHIFT (Safety & Health Involvement For Truckers), is hosted on a mobile-friendly website and involves competition, training, health coaching, and self-monitoring. Results of this trial will improve the overall health, safety, and wellbeing of people, like truckers, who work in environments with significant barriers to healthy eating, exercise, and sleep.
• As a member of the Oregon Healthy Workforce center (OHWC), developed a new team-based total worker health intervention for home care workers that may become a model program for dissemination to other states.
Injury, Treatment, Recovery and Prevention
Physical injury is the largest contributor to workers’ compensation costs in Oregon. In 2009, more than 48,000 Oregonians were injured on the job. Of those injured, 52.6% either lost multiple days from work, were placed on work restriction, or transferred to other duties. Nationally, the total annual cost for musculoskeletal disorders alone has been estimated to exceed 54 billion dollars. To reduce this enormous burden on worker wellness and productivity, Institute scientists are conducting innovative research to better understand:
• Causes of workplace injury, so the most effective strategies to prevent traumatic injuries can be developed.
• Effectiveness of treatments, to optimize returning injured workers back to full employment.
• Recovery from injury, which will enable development of new drugs and therapies to restore function to injured nerves and muscles.
• Prevention strategies to reduce injury frequency to eliminate as many injuries as possible.
Dr. Ryan Olson heads the Oregon Occupational Fatality Assessment and Control Evaluation (OR-FACE) Program, a National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health sponsored program designed to prevent occupational fatalities through surveillance, targeted investigation, assessment, and outreach associated with traumatic work-related deaths. In 2012-13, Dr. Olson and OR-FACE staff:
• Continued to produce Annual Reports of fatality trends and abstracts, as well as in-depth fatality investigation reports for selected cases. In prior years 2010 and 2011, there were 50 and 59 work-related fatalities in Oregon, representing fatality rates per 100,000 workers of 2.8 and 3.3, respectively.• Developed and field-tested new evidence-based guides that allow supervisors to present effective safety “tool box talks” to prevent occupational fatalities and reduce the risks that lead to them.
• Published their research, in collaboration with partners at the Oregon Health Authority, on elevated risk of workers over the age of 65 to be killed in transportation-related events. This included analyses of possible contributing factors such as older worker employment in hazardous occupations, as well as factors that could be targeted for intervention, such as the organization of work in small businesses.
Neuromuscular injuries are an overwhelming cause of occupational disability nationally. Dr. Bruce Patton, who is interested in understanding how nerves and muscles develop and grow as well as respond to injury, has revealed previously unknown mechanisms of nerve and muscle cell development that may someday play key roles in establishing new therapies for restoring function in injured workers who would otherwise lose their ability to work. In 2012, Dr. Patton’s laboratory has discovered:
• That a cell-adhesion molecule, known as CD44, is required for specific developmental stages of growth and differentiation in nerves and their support cells.• CD44 is also required for normal growth and regeneration of small peripheral nerve axons.
• These findings are enlightening our understanding of how nerves and muscles might be encouraged, through innovative therapies, to grow and regenerate after injury.
Chronic lower back pain is one of the most frequently encountered ailments of individuals during their working years, and research on the effectiveness of treatment is critical to reducing costs and improving overall worker health and productivity. Dr. Richard Deyo has a long-standing research interest in measuring patient function as it relates to the management of low back pain and has published a variety of influential articles on the effectiveness of various treatment modalities. In 2012, Dr. Deyo:
• Examined the value of routine imaging in low back pain.
• Found that new guidelines for diagnostic imaging could actually improve outcomes, decrease risk, and reduce costs.
• Compared the efficacy of surgical approaches for treating back pain.
• Discussed complementary and alternative medicines to treat back and neck pain.
• Identified dangers of the growing use of opioids to treat back pain.
In 2013, Dr. Deyo:
• Co-chaired an NIH Task Force on Research Standards for Chronic Low Back pain, with recommendations to be published in 2014.
• Evaluated new technologies for treating spinal stenosis and vertebral fractures.
• Assessed the cost implications of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) treatments for low back pain (e.g. acupuncture, massage).
• Evaluated the impact of prescribing narcotic painkillers for chronic pain.
• Identified complication rates among older adults having various types of spine surgery.
• Examined the influence of workers compensation coverage policies on rates, complications, and costs of spine surgery.
Outreach and Education
The Oregon Institute of Occupational Health Sciences is proactively engaged in providing timely occupational health and safety information to employees, employers, health and safety professionals, doctors, nurses, and the general public.
The Web: A Powerful Medium for Public Outreach
The Institute uses the full range of available web technologies to provide the public with the latest in health and safety information.
CROETweb.com, Occupational Health Science’s widely respected health and safety resource webpage, contains links to over 1,200 occupational safety and health resources focused on day-to-day workplace issues.
• 2012 total page views: 80,945
• 2013 page views: 63,000
• Most widely viewed pages: safety and toolbox talks
• Our monthly e-newsletter keeps users up-to-date on happenings at the Institute as well as on new web content as it is added.
• Issued monthly e-newsletters to approximately 1,000 Oregon stakeholders.
Oregon and the Workplace blog.
• Received 12,157 views in 2012 averaging 33 visitors per day, with each visitor spending an average of 4 minutes per visit. In 2013, just under 32,000 page views were received with viewers reading an average of three blogs per visit.
• The Institute currently has 250 followers on Twitter, including numerous international occupational safety and health organizations. Twitter “re-tweets” extend the Institute’s message to thousands of new viewers.
• As of 2013, the Institute has 130 “likes”.
• Occupational Health Sciences website – where viewers can learn about the Institute, its people,
research, and much more.
• Total 2012 page views 32,382, 2013 page views 54,600
• Most viewed pages: 1) summer students; 2) faculty pages; 3) emerging issues.
Health and Safety Training Symposia
Occupational Health Sciences provides at least two health and safety symposia per year, one sponsored jointly with the PSU Occupational Health Psychlolgy program. Topics are determined based on feedback from the Oregon occupational health and safety professional community. The Oregon Healthy Workforce Center also sponsors a luncheon that includes talks by authorities in the Health and Safety/Wellness field. The target audience includes health, safety and environmental professionals, although the targeted group varies based on the symposium topic. The Institute presented the following symposia in 2012 & 2013:
•Workplace Aggression: Causes, Consequences, and Prevention. Presented by Occupational Health Sciences and PSU Occupational Health Psychology, November 2, 2012.
•Green Chemistry, Safer Alternatives and Work. Presented by Occupational Health Sciences and Oregon Health Authority, June 15, 2012.
•Oregon Healthy Workforce Center Luncheon: An Authoritative Look at the ROI of Workplace Wellness Programs by Larry Chapman, September 14, 2012.
•The Changing Employment Relationship and Worker Well-Being. Presented by Occupational Health Sciences and PSU Occupational Health Psychology Program, November 15, 2013.
•Sleep and Shift Work: Impact on Health, Safety and Productivity. Presented by Occupational Health Sciences, June 14, 2013.
•Creating Excellence in Worksite Wellness: Taking Your Program to the Next Level. A Short Course at the Oregon Governor’s Occupational Safety and Health Conference, March 7, 2013. Co-sponsored by Occupational Health Sciences, the Oregon Healthy Workforce Center, SAIF Corporation and the Portland Business Journal.
Health and Safety Conferences
The majority of health and safety conferences that the Institute participates in are sponsored by OR-OSHA. Conferences are an important means by which we reach out to working Oregonians: Workers and businesses learn about Occupational Health Sciences and what we have to offer, and Institute personnel learn about the needs and concerns of workers and the industries that employ them. Our scientists are often asked to give health and safety presentations in addition to providing conference exhibits. The Institute also created new stakeholders by attending conferences sponsored by other organizations, including the American Society of Safety Engineers and the American Heart Association Wellness Summit. Overall, conferences represent a tremendous networking opportunity for the Institute’s outreach personnel, allowing us to travel to and meet Oregonians in all corners of the state.
Toxicology Information and Occupational Health and Safety Resource Centers
The Toxicology Information Center (TIC), directed by Dr. Fred Berman, and Occupational Health and Safety Resource Center, directed by Dede Montgomery, CIH, provide a vital service to citizens and professionals by responding to their inquiries about workplace safety and hazards of exposure to chemicals and other agents. The goal is to provide up-to-date information in a form that is understandable and useful. Dr. Berman and Ms. Montgomery handle hundreds of consultation requests from occupational safety and health professionals, business owners, government agencies, physicians and nurses, the media, and the general working public. Inquiries cover a variety of issues. Chemical agents of concern include solvents, heavy metals, and pesticides. Physicians often seek information on a variety of potentially occupation-related health complaints. Each request takes from less than an hour up to several days to respond to fully. The TIC is open to calls from 7:30 a.m. to 5:00 p.m., Monday through Friday, and to walk-in visitors from 7:30 a.m. to 3:30 p.m., Monday through Thursday. Patrons have access to a variety of resources, including computers, databases, government reports, textbooks, and journals that are devoted to toxicology-related issues and occupational safety and health. In addition to the TIC, Dr. Berman serves as consultant to the Oregon Department of Agriculture’s Pesticide Analytical and Response Center (PARC), which is legislatively mandated to address pesticide-related incidents in Oregon that have suspected health or environmental effects (http://www.oregon.gov/ODA/PEST/parc.shtml). Dr. Berman is also a co-investigator with the National Pesticide Information Center (NPIC), a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency-sponsored project operated cooperatively with Oregon State University. NPIC provides objective, science-based information about pesticides and pesticide-related topics to enable people to make informed decisions about pesticides and their use (http://npic.orst.edu/).
Anger WK, Boyes WK. A brief history of INA and ICOH SCNP: International Neurotoxicology Association and International Congress on Occupational Health Scientific Committee on Neurotoxicology and Psychophysiology. Neurotoxicology. 2012 Aug; 33(4): 631-40.
Bolkan BJ, Triphan T, Kretzschmar D. β-secretase cleavage of the fly amyloid precursor protein is required for glial survival. J Neurosci. 2012 Nov 14; 32(46): 16181-92.
Bowman GL, Silbert LC, Howieson D, Dodge HH, Traber MG, Frei B, Kaye JA, Shannon J, Quinn JF. Nutrient biomarker patterns, cognitive function, and MRI measures of brain aging. Neurology. 2012 Jan 24; 78(4): 241-9.
Buxton OM, Cain SW, O’Connor SP, Porter JH, Duffy JF, Wang W, Czeisler CA, Shea SA. Adverse metabolic consequences in humans of prolonged sleep restriction combined with circadian disruption. Sci Transl Med. 2012 Apr 11; 4(129): 129ra43.
Carney PA, Hamada JL, Rdesinski R, Sprager L, Nichols KR, Liu BY, Pelayo J, Sanchez MA, Shannon J. Impact of a community gardening project on vegetable intake, food security and family relationships: a community-based participatory research study. J Community Health. 2012 Aug; 37(4): 874-81.
Chan JM, Harrison SL, Bauer SR, Daniels NA, Wilt TJ, Shannon J, Bauer DC. Statin use and risk of prostate cancer in the prospective Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) Study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2012 Aug 9.
Chary P, Beard WA, Wilson SH, Lloyd RS. DNA polymerase β gap-filling translesion DNA synthesis. Chem Res Toxicol. 2012 Dec 17; 25(12): 2744-54.
Chen J, Anger WK, Boyes WK, Fox DA, Kim E, Li A, Lorens J, Luchinni R, Zheng W (Editors) Neurotoxicity and Neurodegeneration: Local Effect and Global Impact. NeuroToxicology. 2012, 33: 621-946.
Christov PP, Yamanaka K, Choi JY, Takata K, Wood RD, Guengerich FP, Lloyd RS, Rizzo CJ. Replication of the 2,6-diamino-4-hydroxy-N(5)-(methyl)-formamidopyrimidine (MeFapy-dGuo) adduct by eukaryotic DNA polymerases. Chem Res Toxicol. 2012 Aug 20; 25(8): 1652-61.
Cook M, Mani P, Wentzell JS, Kretzschmar D. Increased RhoA prenylation in the loechrig (loe) mutant leads to progressive neurodegeneration. PLoS One. 2012; 7(9): e44440.
Dodson ML, Walker RC, Lloyd RS. Carbinolamine formation and dehydration in a DNA repair enzyme active site. PLoS One. 2012; 7(2): e31377.
Dutta S, McFerrin J, Patton BL, Kretzschmar D. Prechordate conservation of glia-type specific expression and function of Neuropathy Target Esterase. Mol Biol Cell. 2012: 23(suppl): 2840.
Eastwood E, Allen CN, Raber J. Effects of neonatal methamphetamine and thioperamide exposure on spatial memory retention and circadian activity later in life. Behav Brain Res. 2012 Apr 21; 230(1): 229-36.
Fox DA, Lucchini R, Aschner M, Chen J, Anger WK, Kim EA, Boyes WK, Llorens J. Local effects and global impact in neurotoxicity and neurodegeneration: the Xi’an International Neurotoxicology Conference. Neurotoxicology. 2012 Aug; 33(4): 629-30.
Frankenfeld CL, Lampe JW, Shannon J, Gao DL, Li W, Ray RM, Chen C, King IB, Thomas DB. Fruit and vegetable intakes in relation to plasma nutrient concentrations in women in Shanghai, China. Public Health Nutr. 2012 Jan; 15(1): 167-75.
Hu K, Meijer JH, Shea SA,VanderLeest HT, Pittman-Polletta B, Houben T, van Oosterhout F, Deboer T, Scheer FA. Fractal patterns of neural activity exist within the suprachiasmatic nucleus and require extrinsic network interactions. PLoS One. 2012; 7(11): e48927.
Ismail AA, Bodner TE, Rohlman DS. Neurobehavioral performance among agricultural workers and pesticide applicators: a meta-analytic study. Occup Environ Med. 2012 Jul; 69(7): 457-64.
Jeyaraj D, Scheer FA, Ripperger JA, Haldar SM, Lu Y, Prosdocimo DA, Eapen SJ, Eapen BL, Cui Y, Mahabeleshwar GH, Lee HG, Smith MA, Casadesus G, Mintz EM, Sun H, Wang Y, Ramsey KM, Bass J, Shea SA, Albrecht U, Jain MK. Klf15 orchestrates circadian nitrogen homeostasis. Cell Metab. 2012; 15: 311-23
Jeyaraj D, Haldar SM, Wan X, McCauley MD, Ripperger JA, Hu K, Lu Y, Eapen BL, Sharma N, Ficker E, Cutler MJ, Gulick J, Sanbe A, Robbins J, Demolombe S, Kondratov RV, Shea SA, Albrecht U, Wehrens XH, Rosenbaum DS, Jain MK. Circadian rhythms govern cardiac repolarization and arrhythmogenesis. Nature. 2012; 483: 96-9
Kassa R, Monterroso V, Wentzell J, Ramos AL, Couchi E, Lecomte MC, Iordanov M, Kretzschmar D, Nicolas G, Tshala-Katumbay D. Proximal giant neurofilamentous axonopathy in mice genetically engineered to resist calpain and caspase cleavage of α-II spectrin. J Mol Neurosci. 2012 Jul; 47(3): 631-8.
Klug AR, Harbut MB, Lloyd RS, Minko IG. Replication bypass of N2-deoxyguanosine interstrand cross-links by human DNA polymerases η and ι. Chem Res Toxicol. 2012; 25 (3): 755-762.
Krishnan N, Rakshit K, Chow ES, Wentzell JS, Kretzschmar D, Giebultowicz JM. Loss of circadian clock accelerates aging in neurodegeneration-prone mutants. Neurobiol Dis. 2012 Mar; 45(3):1129-35.
Kumari A, Lim YX, Newell AH, Olson SB, McCullough AK. Formaldehyde-induced genome instability is suppressed by an XPF-dependent pathway. DNA Repair (Amst). 2012 Mar 1; 11(3): 236-46.
Lein PJ, Bonner MR, Farahat FM, Olson JR, Rohlman DS, Fenske RA, Lattal KM, Lasarev MR, Galvin K, Farahat TM, Anger WK. Experimental strategy for translational studies of organophosphorus pesticide neurotoxicity based on real-world occupational exposures to chlorpyrifos. Neurotoxicology. 2012 Aug; 33(4): 660-8.
Li AA, Levine TE, Burns CJ, Anger WK. Integration of epidemiology and animal neurotoxicity data for risk assessment. Neurotoxicology. 2012 Aug; 33(4): 823-32.
London L, Beseler C, Bouchard MF, Bellinger DC, Colosio C, Grandjean P, Harari R, Kootbodien T, Kromhout H, Little F, Meijster T, Moretto A, Rohlman DS, Stallones L. Neurobehavioral and neurodevelopmental effects of pesticide exposures. Neurotoxicology. 2012 Aug; 33(4): 887-96.
Luyster FS, Strollo PJ Jr, Zee PC, Walsh JK; Boards of Directors of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine and the Sleep Research Society. Sleep: a health imperative. Sleep. 2012 Jun 1; 35(6): 727-34.
Marriott LK, Cameron WE, Purnell JQ, Cetola S, Ito MK, Williams CD, Newcomb KC, Randall JA, Messenger WB, Lipus AC, Shannon J. Let’s Get Healthy! Health awareness through public participation in an education and research exhibit. Prog Community Health Partnersh. 2012 Fall; 6(3): 331-7
Marriott LK, Nelson DA, Allen S, Calhoun K, Eldredge CE, Kimminau KS, Lucero RJ, Pineda-Reyes F, Rumala BB, Varanasi AP, Wasser JS, Shannon J. Using health information technology to engage communities in health, education, and research. Sci Transl Med. 2012; 4: 119.
Messenger W, Nielson CM, Li H, Beer T, Barrett-Connor E, Stone K, Shannon J. Serum and dietary vitamin D and cardiovascular disease risk in elderly men: a prospective cohort study. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2012 Oct; 22(10): 856-63.
Miller S, McFerrin J, Banine F, Su W, Sherman LS and Patton BL. CD44 required for neuregulin-dependent axonal sorting and nonmyelinating Schwann cell differentiation. Mol Biol Cell. 2012; 23 (suppl): 2901.
Olson R, Wipfli B and Garcia LR. Ergonomics: Practical guidance for assessing truck drivers. Professional Safety. 2012 Apr: 38-43
Poeck B, Strauss R, Kretzschmar D. Analysis of amyloid precursor protein function in Drosophila melanogaster. Exp Brain Res. 2012 Apr; 217(3-4): 413-21.
Rohlman DS, Nuwayhid I, Ismail A, Saddik B. Using epidemiology and neurotoxicology to reduce risks to young workers. Neurotoxicology. 2012 Aug; 33(4): 817-22.
Sampath H, McCullough AK, Lloyd RS. Regulation of DNA glycosylases and their role in limiting disease. Free Radic Res. 2012 Apr; 46(4): 460-78.
Sampath H, Vartanian V, Rollins MR, Sakumi K, Nakabeppu Y, Lloyd RS. 8-Oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (OGG1) deficiency increases susceptibility to obesity and metabolic dysfunction. PLoS One. 2012; 7(12): e51697.
Scheer FA, Morris CJ, Garcia JI, Smales C, Kelly EE, Marks J, Malhotra A, Shea SA. Repeated melatonin supplementation improves sleep in hypertensive patients treated with beta-blockers: a randomized controlled trial. Sleep. 2012 Oct 1; 35(10): 1395-402.
Shea SA. Obesity and pharmacologic control of the body clock. N Engl J Med. 2012 Jul 12; 367(2): 175-8.
Spencer PS and Palmer VS. Interrelationships of undernutrition and neurotoxicity: food for thought and research attention. Neurotoxicology 22: 605-16, 2012.
Spencer PS, Fry, RC and Kisby, GE. Unraveling 50-year-old clues linking neurodegeneration and cancer to cycad toxins: Are microRNAs common mediators? Frontiers in Genetics 2012; 3: 192.
Spencer PS, Fry RC, Palmer VS and Kisby GE. Western Pacific ALS-PDC: a prototypical neurodegenerative disorder linked to DNA damage and aberrant proteogenesis? Frontiers in Neurology 2012; 3: 180.
Wentzell JS, Bolkan BJ, Carmine-Simmen K, Swanson TL, Musashe DT, Kretzschmar D. Amyloid precursor proteins are protective in Drosophila models of progressive neurodegeneration. Neurobiol Dis. 2012 Apr; 46(1): 78-87.
Wipfli B, Olson R, Wright RR, Garrigues L, Lees J. Characterizing hazards and injuries among home care workers. Home Healthcare Nurse June/July 2012; 30(7): 387-393.
Yamanaka K, Dorjsuren D, Eoff RL, Egli M, Maloney DJ, Jadhav A, Simeonov A, Lloyd RS. A comprehensive strategy to discover inhibitors of the translesion synthesis DNA polymerase κ. PLoS One. 2012; 7(10): e45032.
Ansbaugh N, Shannon J, Mori M, Farris PE, Garzotto M. Agent Orange as a risk factor for high-grade prostate cancer. Cancer. 2013 Jul 1; 119(13): 2399-404
Banea JP, Bradbury JH, Mandombi C, Nahimana D, Denton IC, Kuwa N, Tshala Katumbay D. Control of konzo by detoxification of cassava flour in three villages in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Food Chem Toxicol. 2013 Oct; 60: 506-13.
Boivin MJ, Okitundu D, Makila-Mabe Bumoko G, Sombo MT, Mumba D, Tylleskar T, Page CF, Tamfum Muyembe JJ, Tshala-Katumbay D. Neuropsychological effects of konzo: a neuromotor disease associated with poorly processed cassava. Pediatrics. 2013 Apr; 131(4): e1231-9.
Buhl KJ, Berman FW, Stone, DL. Reports of metaldehyde and iron phosphate exposures in animals and characterization of suspected iron toxicosis in dogs. JAVMA. 2013 May; 242(9): 1244-1248.
Chary P, Beard WA, Wilson SH, Lloyd RS. Inhibition of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase-catalyzed synthesis by intercalated DNA Benzo[a]Pyrene 7,8-Dihydrodiol-9,10-Epoxide adducts. PLoS One. 2013 Sep 19; 8(9): e72131.
Chary P, Stone MP, Lloyd RS. Sequence context modulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-induced mutagenesis. Environ Mol Mutagen. 2013 Oct; 54(8): 652-8.
Crane AL, Abdel Rasoul G, Ismail AA, Hendy O, Bonner MR, Lasarev MR, Al-Batanony M, Singleton ST, Khan K, Olson JR, Rohlman DS. Longitudinal assessment of chlorpyrifos exposure and effect biomarkers in adolescent Egyptian agricultural workers. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol. 2013 Jul; 23(4): 356-62.
Crowley KE, Rajaratnam SM, Shea SA, Epstein LJ, Czeisler CA, Lockley SW, Harvard Work Hours, Health and Safety Group. Evaluation of a single-channel nasal pressure device to assess obstructive sleep apnea risk in laboratory and home environments. J Clin Sleep Med. 2013 Feb 1; 9(2): 109-16.
Diekman CO, Belle MD, Irwin RP, Allen CN, Piggins HD, Forger DB. Causes and consequences of hyperexcitation in central clock neurons. PLoS Comput Biol. 2013; 9(8)
Earley LF, Minko IG, Christov PP, Rizzo CJ, Lloyd RS. Mutagenic Spectra Arising from Replication Bypass of the 2,6-Diamino-4-hydroxy-N5-methyl Formamidopyrimidine Adduct in Primate Cells. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013
Duringer JM, Craig AM, Palmer VS, and Spencer PS. Beauvericin in sorghum proximate to Nodding Syndrome: Preliminary findings. In Rahman A and Sandhu PS, eds., International Conference on Chemical, Agricultural and Medical Sciences (CAMS-2013), December 20-30, 2013, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, pp. 110-112, 2013.
Hu K, Harper DG, Shea SA, Stopa EG, Scheer FA. Noninvasive fractal biomarker of clock neurotransmitter disturbance in humans with dementia. Sci Rep. 2013; 3: 2229.
Irwin RP, Allen CN. Simultaneous electrophysiological recording and calcium imaging of suprachiasmatic nucleus neurons. J Vis Exp. 2013 Dec 8; (82).
Jacobs AC, Calkins MJ, Jadhav A, Dorjsuren D, Maloney D, Simeonov A, Jaruga P, Dizdaroglu M, McCullough AK, Lloyd RS. Inhibition of DNA Glycosylases via Small Molecule Purine Analogs. PLoS One. 2013 Dec 9; 8(12): e81667.
Kasiviswanathan R, Minko IG, Lloyd RS, Copeland WC. Translesion synthesis past acrolein-derived DNA adducts by human mitochondrial DNA polymerase γ. J Biol Chem. 2013 May 17; 288(20): 14247-55.
Kassa R, Monterroso V, David LL, Tshala-Katumbay D. Diagnostic and therapeutic potential of tetanus toxin-derivatives in neurological diseases. J Mol Neurosci. 2013 Nov; 51(3): 788-91.
Ketkar A, Zafar MK, Maddukuri L, Yamanaka K, Banerjee S, Egli M, Choi JY, Lloyd RS, Eoff RL. Leukotriene biosynthesis inhibitor MK886 impedes DNA polymerase activity. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Feb 18; 26(2): 221-32.
Kimani S, Moterroso V, Lasarev M, Kipruto S, Bukachi F, Maitai C, David L, Tshala-Katumbay D. Carbamoylation correlates of cyanate neuropathy and cyanide poisoning: relevance to the biomarkers of cassava cyanogenesis and motor system toxicity. Springerplus. 2013 Dec 2; 2: 647.
Kisby GE and Spencer PS. Parkinsonism and cancer. JAMA Neurology 70: 414-5, 2013.
Kisby GE and Spencer PS. Cycad plant toxins and animal models of developmental brain dysfunction. In Plants, Herbs and Development. Birth Defects Research: Part C. Embryo Today (ed. Tuan R), Wiley, 99: 247-55, 2013.
Kronenberg A, Gauny S, Kwoh E, Grossi G, Dan C, Grygoryev D, Lasarev M, Turker MS. Comparative analysis of cell killing and autosomal mutation in mouse kidney epithelium exposed to 1 GeV protons in vitro or in vivo. Radiat Res. 2013 May; 179(5): 511-20.
Kruer MC, Jepperson T, Dutta S, Steiner RD, Cottenie E, Sanford L, Merkens M, Russman BS, Blasco PA, Fan G, Pollock J, Green S, Woltjer RL, Mooney C, Kretzschmar D, Paisán-Ruiz C, Houlden H. Mutations in gamma adducin are associated with inherited cerebral palsy. Ann Neurol. 2013 Jul 9.
Laharnar N, Perrin N, Hanson G, Glass N, Anger WK. A Training Intervention for Supervisors to Support Implementation of a Work-Family Policy. Safety and Health at Work, 2013, 4(3): 166-167.
Luabeya MK, Mwanza JC, Mukendi KM, Tshala-Katumbay D. APRONES: neurology research and education in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Neurology. 2013 May 7; 80(19): 1806-7.
Moldavan MG, Allen CN. GABAB receptor-mediated frequency-dependent and circadian changes in synaptic plasticity modulate retinal input to the suprachiasmatic nucleus. J Physiol. 2013 May 15; 591(Pt 10): 2475-90.
Nakaishi L, Moss H, Weinstein M, Perrin N, Rose L, Anger WK, Hanson GC, Christian M, Glass N. Exploring workplace violence among home care workers in a consumer-driven home health care program. Workplace Health Saf. 2013 Oct; 61(10): 441-50.
Noonan W, Decker-Dismuke A, Turker MS. Epigenetic Patents: A Stressful Environment for an Emerging Science. Biotechnology Law Report 2013; 32: 302-312.
Olsen RH, Allen CN, Derkach VA, Phillips TJ, Belknap JK, Raber J. Impaired memory and reduced sensitivity to the circadian period lengthening effects of methamphetamine in mice selected for high methamphetamine consumption. Behav Brain Res. 2013 Nov 1; 256: 197-204.
Pittman-Polletta BR, Scheer FA, Butler MP, Shea SA, Hu K. The role of the circadian system in fractal neurophysiological control. Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc. 2013 Nov; 88(4): 873-94.
Rohlman DS, Parish M, Elliot DL, Montgomery D, Hanson G. Characterizing the needs of a young working population: making the case for total worker health in an emerging workforce. J Occup Environ Med. 2013 Dec; 55(12 Suppl): S69-72.
Scheer FA, Morris CJ, Shea SA. The internal circadian clock increases hunger and appetite in the evening independent of food intake and other behaviors. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2013 Mar; 21(3): 421-3.
Shanmugam G, Minko IG, Banerjee S, Christov PP, Kozekov ID, Rizzo CJ, Lloyd RS, Egli M, Stone MP. Ring-opening of the γ-OH-PdG adduct promotes error-free bypass by the Sulfolobus solfataricus DNA polymerase Dpo4. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Sep 16; 26(9): 1348-60.
Shikany JM, Barrett-Connor E, Ensrud KE, Cawthon PM, Lewis CE, Dam TT, Shannon J, Redden DT; for the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) Research Group. Macronutrients, Diet Quality, and Frailty in Older Men. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2013 Dec 4.
Spencer PS, Palmer VS and Jilek-Aall L. Nodding Syndrome: Origins and natural history of a longstanding epileptic disorder in sub-Sahara. African Health Sciences 13: 176-82, 2013.
Spencer PS, Vandemaele K, Richer M, Palmer VS, Chungong S, Anker M, Ayana Y, Opoka ML, Klaucke DN, Quarello and Tumwine JK. Nodding Syndrome in Mundri County, South Sudan: Environmental, nutritional and infectious factors. African Health Sciences, 13: 183-203, 2013.
Spencer PS and Palmer VS. Nodding Syndrome: Do mycotoxins contribute to etiology? PLoS ONE July 31, 2013
Tshala-Katumbay D, Mumba N, Okitundu L, Kazadi K, Banea M, Tylleskär T, Boivin M, Muyembe-Tamfum JJ. Cassava food toxins, konzo disease, and neurodegeneration in sub-Sahara Africans. Neurology. 2013 Mar 5; 80(10): 949-51.
Turker MS, Grygoryev D, Dan C, Eckelmann B, Lasarev M, Gauny S, Kwoh E, Kronenberg A. Autosomal mutations in mouse kidney epithelial cells exposed to high-energy protons in vivo or in culture. Radiat Res. 2013 May; 179(5): 521-9.
Walters JK, Olson R, Karr J, Zoller E, Cain D, Douglas JP. Elevated occupational transportation fatalities among older workers in Oregon: an empirical investigation. Accid Anal Prev. 2013 Apr; 53: 28-38.
Wipfli B, Olson R, Koren M. Weight-loss maintenance among SHIFT pilot study participants 30-months after intervention. J Occup Environ Med. 2013 Jan; 55(1): 1-3.