Tooth Morphology 2009

Objectives and Goals

  • be familiar with the various canal configurations of each permanent tooth type.
  • be familiar with the relationship of external morphology and internal morphology.
  • be more aware of "abnormal" morphologic situations.
  • develop a rationale for treatment planning (retreatment, surgery, etc.)

Mueller AH. Anatomy of the root canals of the incisors, cuspids and biscuspids of the permanent teeth. JADA 1933;20(8).

Green D. Morphology of the pulp cavity of the permanent teeth. Oral Surg 1955;8:743.

Skidmore AE, Bjorndal AM. Root canal morphology of the human mandibular first molar. Oral Surg 1971;32:778.

Pineda F, Kuttler Y. Mesiodistal and buccolingual roentgenographicinvestigation of 7,275 root canals. Oral Surg 1972;33:101

Vertucci F, Seelig A, Gillis R. Root canal morphology of the human maxillary second premolar. Oral Surg 1974;38:456.

Vertucci FJ. Root canal anatomy of the mandibular anterior teeth. JADA1974;89:368.

Vertucci FJ. Root canal morphology of mandibular premolars. JADA1978;97:47.

Vertucci FJ, Gegauff A. Root canal anatomy of the maxillary first premolar.JADA 1979;99:194.

Vertucci FJ. Root canal anatomy of the human permanent teeth. Oral Surg 1984;58(5):589-599.

Weine FS, Pasiewicz RA, Rice RT. Canal configuration of the mandibularsecond molar using a clinically oriented in vitro method. J Endodon1988;14(5):207 - 213.

Sieraski SM, Taylor GN, Kohn RA. Identification and endodontic management of three-canalled maxillary premolars. J Endodon 1989;15(1):29 - 32.

Kulild JC, Peters DD. Incidence and configuration of canal systems in themesiobuccal root of maxillary first and second molars. J Endodon1990;16(7):311 - 317.

Christie WH, Peikoff MD, Fogel HM. Maxillary molars with two palatalroots:retrospective clinical study. J Endodon 1991;17(2):80-84.

Peikoff M, Christie W, Fogel H. The maxillary second molar: variations in the number of roots and canals. Int Endod J 1996; 29: 365-369

Sidow S, West L, Liewehr R, Loushine R.  Root canal morphology of human maxillary and mandibular third molars. J Endodon 2000;25(11):675-678.

Tsesis I, Shifman A, Kaufman A.  Taurodontism: an endodontic challenge. Report of a case.  J Endodon 2003;29(5):353-355

Teixeira FB, Sano CL, Gomes B, Zaia A, Ferraz C, Souza-Filho F.  A preliminary  in vitro study of the incidence and position of the root canal isthmus in maxillary and mandibular first molars.  Int Endol J 2003;36:276-280

Baugh D, Wallace J.  Middle mesial canal of the mandibular first molar: A case report and literature review.  JEndodon 2004;30(3):185-186

Steffen H, Splieth C.  Conventional treatment of dens invaginatus in maxillary lateral incisor with sinus tract: One year follow-up. J Endodon  2005;(2):130-133

Levitan M, Himel V.  Dens evaginatus: Literature review, pathophysiology, and comprehensive treatment regimen.  JEndodon 2006;32(1):1-9

Cleghorn B, Christie W, Dong C.  Root and root canal morphology of the human permanent maxillary first molar: A literature review.  JEndodon 2006;32(9):813-821

Calberson F, De Moor R, Derrose C.  The radix entomolaris and paramolaris: Clinical approach in endodontics.  JEndodon 2007;33(1):58-63

Cleghorn B, Christie W, Dong C.  The root and root canal morphology of the human mandibular first premolar: A literature review.  JEndodon 2007;33(5):509-516

Cleghorn B, Christie W, Dong C.  The root and root canal morphology of the human mandibular second premolar: A literature review.  JEndodon 2007;33(9):1031-1037

Jafgarzadeb H, Wu YN.  The C-shaped root canal configuration: A review.  JEndodon 2007;35(5):517-523

Peiris H, Pitakotuwage T, Takahashi M, Sasaki K, Kanazawa E.  Root canal morphology of mandibular permanent molars at different ages.  Int Endo J 2008;41:828-835

Ingle's Endodontics. 6th edition 2008:877-915

OPTIONAL

Weine FS, Gerstein H, Evanson L. Canal configuration in the mesiobuccal root of the maxillary first molar and its endodontic significance. Oral Surg 1969;28:419.

Madeira MC, Hetem S. Incidence of bifurcations in mandibular incisors. Oral Surg 1973;36:589.

Carns EJ, Skidmore AE. Configurations and deviations of root canals of maxillary first premolars. Oral Surg 1973;36:880.

Pomeranz HH, Fishelberg G. The secondary mesiobuccal canal of maxillary molars. JADA 1974;88:119

Hovland EJ, Block RM. Nonrecognition and subsequent endodontic treatment of dens invaginatus. J Endodon 1977;3(9):360 - 363.

Vigouroux SAA, Bosaans SA. Anatomy of the pulp chamber floor of thepermanent maxillary first molar. J Endodon 1978;4(7):214 - 219.

Bolger WL, Schindler WG. A mandibular first molar with a c-shaped rootconfiguration. J Endodon 1988;14(10):515 - 519.

Cooke HG, Cox FL.  C-shaped canal configurations in mandibular molars.JADA 1979; 836-839

Wilcox LR, Walton RE, Case WB. Molar access:shape and outline according of oriface locations. J Endodon 1989;15(7):315 - 318.

Weller RN, Hartwell G. The impact of improved access and searchingtechniques on detection of the mesiolingual canal in maxillary molars. JEndodon 1989;15(2):82 - 83.

Fabra-Campos H.  Three canals in the mesial root of mandibular first permanent molars: a clinical study.  J Endodon 1989;22:39-43

Gilles J, Reader A. A SEM investigation of the mesiolingual canal in human maxillary first and second molars. Oral Surg 1990;70(5):638-643

Hayashi Y.  Endodontic treatment in taurodontism.  J Endodon 1994; 20(7): 357-358.

Fogel H, Peikoff M, Christie W. Canal configuration in the mesiobuccalroot of the maxillary first molar: a clinical study. J Endodon 1994;20(3):135-137.

Echeverri EA, Wang MM, Chavaria C, Taylor DL. Multiple dens evaginatus:diagnosis, management, and complications: case report. Ped Dent 1994;16(4):314-317.

Jerome CE.  C-shaped root canal systems:  diagnosis, treatment, andrestoration.  Gen Dent 1994;(Sept/Oct):424-427.

Eskoz N, Weine F. Canal configuration of the mesiobuccal root of the maxillary second molar. J Endodon 1995;21(1):38-42.

Augsburger R, Wong M.  Pulp management in dens evaginatus.  J Endodon 1996; 22 (6): 323-326.

Mauger M, Waite MW, Alexander J, Schindler W. Ideal endodontic access in mandibular incisors. JEndodon 1999;25(3):206-207.

Girsch W, McClammy T.  Microscopic removal of dens invaginatus.  J Endodon  2002;28(4);336-339

De Moor R, Calberson F.  Root canal treatment in a mandibular second premolar with three root canals.  J Endodon 2005;4:310-313