Pulpal Physiology 2009

Objectives and Goals

  • Discuss theories of sensitivity of the pulp-dentin complex.
  • Discuss the function of cellular and non-cellular components of the pulp-dentin complex.
  • Discuss the hemodynamics of the pulp. Describe the pulpal microvasculature system. 

Reading Assignment:
All – Pathways of the Pulp pp. 460-507

Beveridge EE, Brown AC. The measurement of human dental intrapulpal pressure and its response to clinical variables. Oral Surg 1965;19:655.

Zach L, Cohen G. Pulp responses to externally applied heat. Oral Surg 1965;19:515.

Upthegrove DD, Bishop JG, Dorman HL. Indirect determination of the bloodpressure in the dental pulp. Arch Oral Biol 1968;13:929-935.

Van Hassel HJ. Physiology of the human dental pulp. Oral Surg 1971;32:126-134.

Edwall L, Scott D. Influence of changes in microcirculation on the excitability of the sensory unit in the tooth of the cat. Acta Physiol Scand 1971;82:555-566.

Andrews SS, Van Hassel HJ, Brown AC. A method of determining the physiologic basis of pulp sensory response. J Hosp Dent Prac 1972;6:49-53.

Menke RA, Weine FS, Ulinski PS, Smulson MH. An autoradiographic demonstration of trigeminal nerve terminations in the rat tooth. Journal of Endodontics 1977;3(4):128 - 134.

Forssell-Ahlberg K, Edwall L. Influence of local insults on sympathetic vasoconstrictor control in feline dental pulp. Acta Odont Scand 1977;35:103-110.

Tonder KH. Nervous control of blood flow in the dental pulp in dogs. Acta Physiol Scand 1978;104:13-23.

Pashley DH. The influence of dentin permeability and pulpal blood flow on pulpal solution concentrations. J  Endod 1979;5:355 - 361.

Edwall L. Regulation of pulpal blood flow. J Endod 1980;5:434-437.

Meyer MW. Methodologies for studying pulpal hemodynamics. J Endod 1980;6:466-472.

Gazelius B, Brodin E, Olgart L, Panopoulos P. Evidence that substance P is a mediator of antidromic vasodilation using somatostatin as a relesase ihibitor. Acta   Physiol Scand 1981;113:155-159.

Tonder KJH, Kvinnsland I. Micropuncture measurements of interstitial fluid pressure in normal and inflamed dental pulp in cats. Journal of Endodtics 1983;9(3):105 - 109.

Kim S, Edwall L, Trowbridge H, Chien S. Effects of local anesthetics on pulpal blood flow in dogs. J Dent Res 1984;63:650-652.

Gronblad M, Liesi P, Munck AM. Peptidergic nerves in human tooth pulp. Scand J Dent Res 1984;92:319-324.

Kim S. Microcirculation of the dental pulp in health and disease. J Endod 1985;11(11):465-471.

Trowbridge HO. Review of dental pain - histology and physiology. J Endod1986;12(10):445-452.

Brannstrom M. The hydrodynamic theory of dentinal pain: Sensation in preparations, caries, and the dentinal crack syndrome. J Endod 1986;12(10):453-457.

Olgart L, Gazelius B, Sundstrom F. Intradental nerve activity and jaw-opening reflex in response to mechanical deformation of cat teeth. Acta Physiol Scand 1988;133:399-406.

Heyeraas KJ. Pulpal hemodynamics and interstitial fluid pressure: balance of transmicrovascular fluid transport. Journal of Endodtics 1989;15(10):468 - 472.

Okabe E, Todoki K, Haruo I. Direct pharmacological action of vasoactive substances on pulpal blood flow: an analysis and critique. Journal of Endodtics 1989;15(10):473 -477.

Kim S, Kim JD. Hemodynamic regulation of the dental pulp in a low compliance environment. J Endod 1989;15(9):404-408.

Olgart LM, Edwall B, Gazelius B. Neurogenic mediators in control of pulpalblood flow. J Endod 1989;15(9):409-412.

Wakisaka S, Akai M. Immunochistochemical observation on neuropeptides around theblood vessel in feline dental pulp. Journal of Endodtics 1989;15(9):413 - 416.

Kim S, Dorscher-Kim JE, Lipowsky HH. Quantitative assessment of microcirculation in the rat dental pulp in response to alpha- and beta-adrenergic agonists. Arch Oral Biol 1989;34(9):707-712.

Wakisaka S. Neuropeptides in the dental pulp: distribution, origins, and correlation. JEndod 1990;16(2):67-69.

Takahashi K. Changes in the pulpal vasculature during inflammation. Journal of     Endodtics 1990;16(2):92 - 97.

Byers MR, Taylor PE, Khayat BG, Kimberly CL. Effects of injury andinflammation on pulpal and periapical nerves. J Endod 1990;16:78-84.

Kim S. Neurovascular interactions in the dental pulp in health andinflammation. J Endod 1990;16(2):48-53.

McClanahan SB, .Turner DW, Kaminski EJ, Osetek EM, .Heuer MA. Naturalmodifiers of the inflammatory process in the human dental pulp. J Endod1991;17(12):589-593.

Nagata T, Kido J, Hamasaki A, Ishida H, Wakano Y. Regulation of glycosaminoglycan synthesis by parathyroid hormone and prostaglandin E2 incultured dental pulp cells. J Endod 1991;17(12):594-597.

Peckham K, Torabinejad M, Peckham N. The presence of nerve fibres in the coronalodontoblast layer of teeth at various stages of root development. Int Endod J 1991;24(6):303-307.

Morse R. Age-related changes of the dental pulp complex and their relationship to             systemic aging. Oral Surg 1991;72(6):721.

Goodis HE, Rosenberg RJ. Histologic evaluation of the pulpal response totemperature probe placement in the Macaca fascicularis  monkey. Oral Surg 1991;72(1):105-107.

Ramsay DS. Orthognathic surgery and pulpal blood flow: A pilot study using laserdoppler flowmetry. J Oral Surg 1991;49:564-570.

Ibricevic H, Heyeraas KJ, Pasicjuhas E, Hamamdzic M, Djordjevic N, Krnic J.Identification of alpha2 adrenoceptors in the blood vessels of the dental pulp. Int EndodJ 1991;24:279-289.

Gilbert TG, Pashley DH, Anderson RW. Response of pulpal blood flow to intra-arterial infusion of endothelin. J Endod 1992;18(5):228 - 231.

Plagmann H, L., Mascres C, Donohue WB. Reaction of the dental pulp to hydroxyapatite. Oral Surg 1992(January):92-98.

Grutzner EH, Garry MG, Hargreaves KM. Effect of injury on pulpal levelsof immunoreactive substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide. J Endod     1992;18(11):553-557.

Watson ADM, Pittford TR, McDonald F. Blood flow changes in the dental pulp duringlimited exercise measured by laser Doppler flowmetry. Int Endod J 1992;25:82-87.

Bartold PM, Schlagenhauf U. Localization of chondroitin sulphate and dermatan sulphate in human dental pulps an immunohistochemical study. Int Endod J1995;28:19-24.

Ciucchi B, Bouillaguet S, Holz J, Pashley D. Dentinal fluid dynamics in human teeth,in vivo. J Endod 1995;21(4):191-194.

Ebihara A, Tokita Y, Izawa T, Suda H. Pulpal blood flow assessed by laserdoppler flowmetry in a tooth with a horizontal root fracture. Oral Surg         1996;81(2):229-33.

Calland J, Harris S, Carnes D, Jr. Human pulp cells respond to calcitonin gene-relatedpeptide in vitro. J Endod 1997;23(8):485-489.

Oikarinen K, Kainulainen V, Sarkela V, Alaniska K, Kopola H. Information ofcirculation from soft tissue and dental pulp by means of pulsatile reflected light. Oral    Surg 1997;84(3):315-320.

Musselwhite J, Klitzman B, Maixner W, Burkes E. Laser doppler flowmetry. OralSurg 1997;84(4):411-419.

Mendez J, Zarzoza E. Rapid determination of dry weight in human dental pulp byacolorimetric reaction. J Endod 1999;25(9):596-598.

Kanjanawattana S, Mangkornkarn C, Wilairat P, Vongsavan N. Determination of lidocaine in dental pulp by high-performance liquid chromatography. J   Endod 2001;27(1):31-35.

Satoyoshi M, Kawata A, Koizumi T, Inoue K, Itohara S, Teranada T, et al. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 in dentin matrix mineralization. J Endod 2001;27(7):462-466.

Mjor I, Sveen O, Heyeraas K. Pulp-dentin biology in restorative dentistry.  Part 1: normal structure and physiology. Quintessence Int 2001;32(6):427-446.

Holt K, Eleazer P, Scheetz J. Wet and dry deep cavity preparations compared by a novel odontoblast culture technique. J Endod 2001;27(2):103-106.

Jiang J, Safavi KE, Spangberg L, Zhu Q. Enamel Matrix derivative prolongs primary osteoblast growth. J Endod 2001;27(2):110-112.

Chang Y-C, Lai C-C, Yang S-s, Chan Y, Hsieh Y-S. Stimulation of matrix            metalloproteinases by black-pigmented bacteroides in human pulp and periodontal ligament cell cultures. J Endod 2002;28(2):90-93.

Hargreaves K, Jackson D, Bowles W. Adrenergic regulation of capsaicin-sensitive neurons in dental pulp. J Endod 2003;29(6):397-398.

Satchell PG, Gutmann JL, Witherspoon DE. Apoptosis: an introduction for the Endodtist. Int Endod J 2003;36:237-245.

Espina AI, Castellanos AV, Fereira JL. Age-related changes in blood capillary endothelium of human dental pulp: an ultrastructural study. Int Endod J 2003;36:395-        403.

Ikawa M, Komatsu H, Ikawa K, Mayanagi H, Shimauchi H. Age-related changes in the human pulpal blood flow measured by laser doppler flowmetry. Dent Traumatol   2003;19:36-40.

Yu CY, Boyd NM, Cringle SJ, Su E-N, Yu D-Y. Vasoactive response of isolated pulpal arterioles to endothelin-1. J Endod 2004;30(3):149-153.

Tokuda M, Miyamoto R, Nagaoka S, Torii M. Substance P enhances expression of         lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory factors in dental pulp cells. J 616 Endod       2004;30(11):770-774.

Kim Y-K, Chu Ws, Lee H-J, Ahn D-K, Kim SK. Effect of iontophoretical application of NK1 receptor antagonists on pulpal blood flow in cats. J Endod. 2005;31(9):647-51.

Min K-S, Chang H-S, Bae J-M, Park S-H, Hong C-U, Kim E-C. The induction of heme oxygenase-1 modulates bismuth oxide-induced cytotoxicity in human dental pulp cells. J Endod. 2007;33(11):1342-6.

Wells JE, Rowland KC, Proctor EK. Hyperpolarization-actibated channels intrigeminal ganglia innervating healthy and pulp-exposed teeth. Int Endod J. 2007;40:715-421.

Caviedes-Bucheli J, Angel-Londoño P, Díaz-Perez A, Orozco MP, Álvarez JL, Lombana N, et al. Variation in the expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 in human pulp tissue according to the root-development stage. J Endod. 2007;33(11):1293-5.