OHSU

Endodontic Irrigation and Chelation 2010

Objectives and Goals

  • List the properties of the "ideal" irrigant and identify which properties the accepted irrigants possess.
  • Discuss different irrigation delivery systems and advantages and disadvantages of the delivery systems.
  • Discuss the role of chelating and demineralization agents and the effect they have on the smear layer.

Endodontics (Ingle) 6th Edition , CH 28 992-1,018.

Pathways of the Pulp 9th Edition, 339-348.

Grossman LI, Meiman B. Solution of pulp tissue by chemical agents. JADA 1941; 28 : 223.

Senia ES, Marshall FJ, Rosen S. The solvent action of sodium hypochlorite on pulp tissue of extracted teeth. Oral Surg 1971; 1971 (1): 96-103.

Fraser JG. Chelating agents:  their softening effect on root canal dentin. Oral Surg 1974; 37 (5): 803.

Salzgeber RM, Brilliant JD. An in vivo evaluation of the penetration of an irrigating solution in root canals. J Endodon 1977; 3 (10): 394-398.

Rosenfeld EF, James GA, Burch BS. Vital pulp tissue response to sodium hypochlorite. J Endodon 1978; 4 (5): 140-146.

Abou-Rass M, Piccinino MV.  The effectiveness of four clinical irrigation methods on the removal of root canal debris. Oral Surg 1982;54:323-328

Yamada RS, Armas A, Goldman M, Lin PS. A scanning electron    microscopic comparison of a high volume final flush with several irrigating solutions: part 3. J Endodon 1983; 9 (2): 137-142.

Mader CL, Baumgartner JC, Peters DD. Scanning electron microscopicinvestigatin of the smeared layer on root canal walls. J Endodon 1984; 10 (10): 477 - 483.

Bystrom A, Sundqvist G. The antibacterial action of sodium hypochlorite and EDTA in 60 cases of endodontic therapy. Int Endod J 1985; 1 (January): 35-40.

Baumgartner JC, Ibay AC. The chemical reactions of irrigants used for root canal debridement. J Endodon 1987; 13 (2): 47-51.

Baumgartner JC, Mader CL. A scanning electron microscopic evaluation of four root canal irrigation regimens. J Endodon 1987; 13 (4): 147-157.

Baumgartner JC, Cuenin PR. Efficacy of several concentrations of sodium hypochlorite for root canal irrigation. J Endodon 1992; 18 (12): 605-612.

O'Connell, MS, Morgan, LA, Beeler, WJ, Baumgartner, JC. A Comparative study of smear layer removal using different salts of EDTA. J Endodon 26:739-743, Dec, 2000.

Siqueira, JF, Rocas, IN., Favieri, A., Lima, KC. Chemomechanical reduction of the bacterial population in the root canal after instrumentation andirrigation with 1%, 2.5%, and 5.25% sodium hypochlorite. J Endodon 26:331-334, June 2000.

Basrani B, Santos JM, Tjaderhane L, Grad H, Gorduysus O, Huang J, Lawrence HP, Friedman S.  Substantive antimicrobial activity in chlorhexidine-treated human root dentin.  Oral Surg 2002;94:240-245

Grawehr M, Sener B, Waltimo T, Zehander M. Interactions of ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid with sodium hypochlorite in aqueous solutions.     Int Endod J 2003;36:411-415.

Rosenthal S, Spangberg L, Safavi K.  Chlorhexidine substantivity in root canal dentin.  Oral Surg 2004;98:488-492

Sedgeley CM, Nagel AC, Hall D, Applegate B.  Influence of irrigant needle depth in removing bioluminescent bacteria inoculated into instrumented root canals using real-time imaging invitro.  Int Endod J 2005;38:97-104

Zehnder M. Root canal irrigants. J Endod. 2006;32(5):389-98.

Nguy D, Sedgeley C.  the influence of canal curvature on the mechanical efficacy of root canal irrigation in vitro using real-time imaging of bioluminescent bacteria.  J Endod 2006;32:1077-1080

Kho P, Baumgartner JC.  A comparison of the antimicrobial efficacy of NaOCl/Biopure MTAD versus NaOCl/EDTA against Enterococcus faecalis.  J Endod 2006;652-655

Johal S, Baumgartner JC, Marshall JG.  Comparison of the antimicrobial efficacy of 1.3% NaOCl/BioPure MTAD to 5.25% NaOCl/15%EDTA for root canal irrigation.  J Endod 2007;33:48-51

Vinothkumar TS, Kavitha S, Lakhminarayanan, L, Gomathi NS, Kumar V.  Influence of irrigating needle-tip designs in removing bacteria inoculated into instrumented root canals measured using single-tube luminometer.  J Endod 2007;33:746-748

Gu, L Kim JR, Ling J, Choi KK, Pashley DH, Tay FR. Review of contemporary irrigant agitation techniques and devices.  J Endod 2009:35:791-804

Articles of Interest – Irrigation

1.             Grossman LI, Meiman B. Solution of pulp tissue by chemical agents. JADA 1941;28:223-5.

2.             Nygaard-Ostby L. Chelation in root canal therapy. Odont Tdskr 1957;65:3.

3.             Patterson SS. In vivo and in vitro studies of the effect of the disodium salt of ethylenediamine tetra-acetate on human dentin and its endodontic implications. Oral Surg 1963;16:83.

4.             Mumford JM. Irrigation potentials in pulp canals. Brit Endod Soc 1969;3(3):43.

5.             Shih M, Marshall FJ, Rosen S. The bactericidal efficiency of sodium hypochlorite as an endodontic irrigant. Oral Surg 1970;29(4):613-619.

6.             Senia ES, Marshall FJ, Rosen S. The solvent action of sodium hypochlorite on pulp tissue of extracted teeth. Oral Surg 1971;1971(1):96-103.

7.             Kahn H, Zelikow R, Ritchie G, Smulson MH, Weine FW. An improved endodontic irrigation technique. Oral Surg 1973;36:887.

8.             Fraser JG. Chelating agents:  their softening effect on root canal dentin. Oral Surg 1974;37(5):803-811.

9.             Baker NA, Eleazer PD, Averbach RE, Seltzer S. Scanning electron microscopic study of the efficacy of various irrigating solutions. J Endodon 1975;1(4):127-135.

10.           McComb D, Smith DC. A preliminary scanning electron microscopic study of root canals after endodontic procedures. J Endodon 1975;1(7):238-242.

11.           VandeVisse JE, Brilliant JD. Effect of irrigation on the production of extruded material at the root apex during instrumentation. J Endodon 1975;1(7):243-246.

12.           Goldman M, Kronman JH, Goldman LB, Clausen H, Grady J. New method of irrigation during endodontic treatment. Journal of Endodontics 1976;2(9):257 - 260.

13.           Martin H. Ultrasonic disinfection of the root canal. Oral Surg 1976;42(1):92.

14.           Svec TA, Harrison JW. Chemomechanical removal of pulpal and dentinal debris with sodium hypochlorite and hydrogen peroxide vs normal saline solution. J Endodon 1977;3(2):49-53.

15.           Salzgeber RM, Brilliant JD. An in vivo evaluation of the penetration of an irrigating solution in root canals. J Endodon 1977;3(10):394-398.

16.           Ram Z. Effectiveness of root canal irrigation. Oral Surg 1977;44(2):306-312.

17.           Harrison JW, Svec TA, Baumgartner JC. Analysis of clinical toxicity of endodontic irrigants. J Endodon 1978;4(1):6-11.

18.           Rosenfeld EF, James GA, Burch BS. Vital pulp tissue response to sodium hypochlorite. J Endodon 1978;4(5):140-146.

19.           Rubin LM, Skobe Z, Krakow AA, Gron P. The effect of instrumentation and flushing of freshly extracted teeth in endodontic therapy: a scanning electron microscope study. J Endodon 1979;5(11):328-335.

20.           The' SD. The solvent action of sodium hypochlorite on fixed and unfixed necrotic tissue. Oral Surg 1979;47(6):558-561.

21.           Goldman LB, Goldman M, Kronman JH, Lin PS. Scanning electron microscope study of a new irrigation method of endodontic treatment. Oral Surg 1979;48(1):79-83.

22.           Lamers AC, van Mullem PJ, Simon M. Tissue reactions to sodium hypochlorite and iodine potassium iodide under clinical conditions in monkey teeth. J Endodon 1980;6(10):788-792.

23.           Drobotij E, Grower MF, Peters DD, Lorton L, Bernier WE. Comparison of the flushing effectiveness of four different types of needles after root canal preparation. J Endodon 1980;6(12):870-875.

24.           Cunningham WT, Balekjian AY. Effect of temperature on collagen-dissolving ability of sodium hypochlorite endodontic irrigant. Oral Surg 1980;49(2):175-177.

25.           Koskinen KP, Stenvall H, Veli-Jukka U. Dissolution of bovine pulp tissue by endodontic solutions. Scand J Dent Res 1980;88:406-411.

26.           Svec TA, Harrison JW. The effect of effervescence on debridement of the apical regions of root canals in single-rooted teeth. J Endodon 1981;7(7):335-340.

27.           Gordon TM, Damato D, Christner P. Solvent effect of various dilutions of sodium hypochlorite on vital and necrotic tissue. J Endodon 1981;7(10):466-469.

28.           Kaufman AY. Facial emphysema caused by hydrogen peroxide irrigation: report of case. Journal of Endodontics 1981;7(10):470 - 472.

29.           Bystrom A, Sundqvist G. Bacteriologic evaluation of the efficacy of mechanical root canal instrumentation in endodontic therapy. Scand J Dent Res 1981;89:321-328.

30.           Ringel AM, Patterson SS, Newton CW, Miller CH, Mulhern JM. In vivo evaluation of chlorhexidine gluoconate solution and sodium hypochlorite solution as root canal irrigants. J Endodon 1982;8(5):200-204.

31.           Moorer WR, Wesselink PR. Factors promoting the tissue dissolving capability of sodium hypochlorite. Int Endod J 1982;4(October):187-196.

32.           Moser JB, Heuer MA. Forces and efficacy in endodontic irrigation systems. Oral Surg 1982;53(4):425-428.

33.           Delany GM, Patterson SS, Miller CH, Newton CW. The effect of chlorhexidine gluconate irrigation on the root canal flora of freshly extraced necrotic teeth. Oral Surg 1982;53(5):518-523.

34.           Abou-Rass M, Piccinino MV. The effectiveness of four clinical irrigation methods on the removal of root canal debris. Oral Surg 1982;54(3):323-328.

35.           Abou-Rass M, Piccinino MV. The irrigation effectiveness of four clinical methods on the removal of root canal debris. Oral Surg 1982;54:323-8.

36.           Yamada RS, Armas A, Goldman M, Lin PS. A scanning electron microscopic comparison of a high volume final flush with several irrigating solutions: part 3. J Endodon 1983;9(2):137-142.

37.           Chow TW. Mechanical effectiveness of root canal irrigation. J Endodon 1983;9(11):475-479.

38.           Bystrom A, Sundqvist G. Bacteriologic evaluation of the effect of 0.5 percent sodium hypochlorite in endodontic therapy. Oral Surg 1983;55(3):307-312.

39.           Sinanan SK, Marshall FJ, Quinton-Cox R. The effectiveness of irrigation in endodontics. J Canad Dent Assn 1983;11:771-776.

40.           Yamada R, Armas A, Goldman M, Pin A. A scanning electron microscopic comparison of a high volume final flush with several irrigating solutions. J Endodon 1983;9:137-142.

41.           Mader CL, Baumgartner JC, Peters DD. Scanning electron microscopic investigation of the smeared layer on root canal walls. J Endodon 1984;10(10):477 - 483.

42.           Madison S, Krell KV. Comparison of ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid and sodium  hypochlorite on the apical seal of endodontically treated teeth. J Endodon 1984;10(10):499-503.

43.           Bystrom A, Sundqvist G. The antibacterial action of sodium hypochlorite and EDTA in 60 cases of endodontic therapy. Int Endod J 1985;1(January):35-40.

44.           Byström A, Sundqvist G. The antibacterial action of sodium hypochlorite and EDTA in 60 cases of endodontic therapy. Int Endod J 1985;18:35-40.

45.           Berg MS, Jacobsen EL, BeGole EA, Remeikis NA. A comparison of five irrigating solutions: a scanning electron microscopic study. J Endodon 1986;12(5):192-197.

46.           Goldberg F, Massone JE, Spielberg C. Effect of irrigation solutions on the filling of lateral root canals. Endod Dent Traumatol 1986;2(2):65 - 66.

47.           Baumgartner JC, Ibay AC. The chemical reactions of irrigants used for root canal debridement. J Endodon 1987;13(2):47-51.

48.           Baumgartner JC, Mader CL. A scanning electron microscopic evaluation of four root canal irrigation regimens. J Endodon 1987;13(4):147-157.

49.           Matson L, Klinge B, H. H. Effect on periapical healing in saline irrigation of the tooth socket before replantation. Endod Dent Traumatol 1987;3(2):64 - 67.

50.           Teplitsky PE, Chenaoil BL, Mack B, Machnee CH. Endodontic irrigation - a comparison of endosonic and syringe delivery systems. Int Endod J 1987;20(5):233-241.

51.           Baumgartner JC, Mader C. A scanning electron microscopic evaluation of four root canal irrigation regimens. J Endodon 1987;13:147-152.

52.           Nikolaus BE, Wayman BE, Encinas E. The bactericidal effect of citric acid and sodium hypochlorite on anaerobic bacteria. J Endodon 1988;14(1):31-34.

53.           Krell KV, Johnson RJ, Madison S. Irrigation patterns during ultrasonic canal instrumentation.  Part I K-type files. Journal of Endodontics 1988;14(2):65 - 68.

54.           Krell KV, Johnson RJ. Irrigation of patterns of ultrasonic endodontic files.  Part II diamond-coated files. Journal of Endodontics 1988;14(11):535 - 537.

55.           Hasselgren G, Olsson B, Cvek M. Effects of calcium hydroxide and sodium hypochlorite on the dissolution of necrotic porcine muscle tissue. J Endodon 1988;14(3):125-127.

56.           Kaufman AY, Senia K. Hypersensitivity to sodium hypochlorite. J Endodon 1989;15(5):224-226.

57.           Reeh ES, Messer HH. Long-term paresthesia following inadvertent forcing of sodium hypochlorite through perforation in maxillary incisor. Endod Dent Traumatol 1989;5(4):200-203.

58.           Ciucchi B, Khettabi M, Holz J. The effectiveness of different endodontic irrigation procedures on the removal of the smear layer: a scanning electron microscopic study. Int Endod J 1989;1(January):21-28.

59.           Druttman ACS, Stock CJR. An in vitro comparison of ultrasonic and conventional methods of irrigant replacement. Int Endod J 1989;21(4):174-178.

60.           Sulong MZAM. The incidence of postoperative pain after canal preparation of open teeth using two irrigation regimes. Int Endod J 1989;21(5):248 - 251.

61.           Goel M. An in vivo evaluation of antibacterial effect of irrigation solutions in endodontics. Int Endo Soc 1989;1(1):31.

62.           Hoen MM, LaBounty GL, Strittmatter EJ. Conservative treatment of persistent periradicular lesions using aspiration and irrigation. J Endodon 1990;16(4):182-187.

63.           Morgan RW, Carnes DL, Montgomery S. The solvent effects of calcium hydroxide irrigating solution on bovine pulp tissue. J Endodon 1991;17(4):165-168.

64.           Walker TL, del Rio CE. Histological evaluation of ultrasonic debridement comparing sodium hypochlorite and water. J Endodon 1991;17(2):66-71.

65.           Abbott PV, Heijkoop PS, Cardaci SC, Hume WR, Heithersay GS. An SEM study of the effects of different irrigation sequences and ultrasonics. Int Endod J 1991;24(6):308-316.

66.           Briseno B, Wirth R, Hamm G, Standhartinger. Efficacy of different irrigation methods and concentrations of root canal irrigation solutions on bacteria in the root canal. Endod Dent Traumatol 1992;8(1):6 - 11.

67.           Baumgartner JC, Cuenin PR. Efficacy of several concentrations of sodium hypochlorite for root canal irrigation. J Endodon 1992;18(12):605-612.

68.           Jeansonne BG, Boggs WS, Lemon RR. Ferric sulfate hemostasis: effect on osseous wound healing.  II. With curettage and irrigation. J Endodon 1993;19(4):174-176.

69.           Lemon RR, Steele PJ, Jeansonne BG. Ferric sulfate hemostasis: effect on osseous wound healing. II. With curettage and irrigation. J Endodon 1993;19:174-176.

70.           Barbosa SV, Spangberg LSW, Almeida D. Low surface tension calcium hydroxide solution is an effective antiseptic. Int Endodo J 1994;27(1):6-10.

71.           Haikel Y, Gorce F, Allemann C, Voegel JC. In vitro efficiency of endodontic irrigation solutions on protein desorption. Int Endodon J 1994;27(1):16-20.

72.           Leonardo MR, Almeida WA, Ito IY, da Silva AB. Radiographic and microbiologic evaluation of posttreatment apical and periapical repair of root canals of dogs' teeth and experimentally induced chronic lesion. Oral Surg 1994;78(2):232-238.

73.           Dautel-Morazin A, Vulcain JM, Bonnaure-Mallet M. An ultrastructural study of the smear layer: comparative aspects using secondary electron image and backscattered electron image. J Endodon 1994;20(11):531-534.

74.           Leonardo MR, Almeida WA, da Silva LAB, Utrilla LS. Histopathological observations of periapical repair in teeth with radiolucent areas submitted to two different methods of root canal treatment. J Endodon 1995;21(3):137-141.

75.           Kahn FH, Rosenberg PA, Gliksberg J. An in vitro evaluation of the irrigating characteristics of ultrasonic and subsonic handpieces and irrigating needles and probes. J Endodon 1995;21(5):277-280.

76.           Piskin B, Turkun M. Stability of various sodium hypochlorite solutions. J Endodon 1995;21(5):253-255.

77.           Panighi MM, Jacquot B. Scanning electron microscopic evaluation of ultrasonic debridement comparing sodium hypochlorite and bardac-22. J Endodon 1995;21(5):272-276.

78.           Sen BH, Wesselink PR, Turkun M. The smear layer: a phenomenon in root canal therapy. Int Endod J 1995;28:141-148.

79.           Yesilsoy C, Whitaker E, Cleveland D, Phillips E, Trope M. Antimicrobial and toxic effects of established and potential root canal irrigants. J Endodon 1995;21(10):513-515.

80.           Wakabayashi H, Morita S, Koba K, Tachibana H, Matsumoto K. Effect of calcium hydroxide paste dressing on uninstrumented root canal wall. J Endodon 1995;21(11):543-545.

81.           Yoshida T, Shibata T, Shinohara T, Gomyo S, Sekine I. Clinical evaluation of the efficacy of EDTA solution as an endodontic irrigant. J Endodon 1995;21(12):592-593.

82.           Brown DC, Moore BK, Brown CEJ, Newton CW. An in vitro study of apical extrusion of sodium hypochlorite during endodontic canal preparation. J Endodon 1995;21(12):587-591.

83.           Inaba D, Duschner H, Jongebloed W, Odellus H, Takagl O, Arends J. The effects of a sodium hypochlorite treatment on demineralized root dentin. Eur J Oral Sci 1995;103:368-374.

84.           Yamaguchi M, Yoshida K, Suzuki R, Nakamura H. Root canal irrigation with citric acid solution. J Endodon 1996;22(1):27-29.

85.           Guignes P, Faure J, Maurette A. Relationship between endodontic preparations and human dentin permeability measured in situ. J Endodon 1996;22(2):60-67.

86.           Love RM, Chandler NP, Jenkinson HF. Penetration of smeared or nonsmeared dentine by streptococcus gordonii. Int Endodon J 1996;29:2-12.

87.           Segura J, Calvo J, Guerrero J, Sampedro C, Jimenez A, Llamas R. The disodium salt of EDTA inhibits the binding of vasoactive intestinal peptide to macrophage membranes: endodontoc implications. J Endodon 1996;22(7):337-340.

88.           Berutti E, Marini R. A scanning electron microscope evaluation of the debridement capability of sodium hypochlorite at different temperatures. J Endodon 1996;22(9):467-470.

89.           Sutton J, Saunders WP. Effect of various irrigant and autoclaving regimes on the fracture resistance of rubber dam clamps. Int Endod J 1996;29:335-343.

90.           Liolios E, Economides N, Parissis-Messimeris S, Boutsioukis A. The effectiveness of three irrigating solutions on root canal cleaning after hand and mechanical preparation. Int Endod J 1997;30:51-57.

91.           Segura JJ, Calvo JR, Guerrero JM, Jimenez-Planas A, Sampedro C, Llamas R. EDTA inhibits in vitro substrate adherence capacity of macrophages: endodontic implications. J Endodon 1997;23(4):205-208.

92.           White RR, Hays GL, Janer LR. Residual antimicrobial activity after canal irrigation with chlorhexidine. J Endodon 1997;23(4):229-231.

93.           Siqueira JF, Jr., Machado AG, Silveira RM, Lopes HP, de Uzeda M. Evaluation of the effectiveness of sodium hypochlorite used with three irrigation methods in the elimination of Enterococcus faecalis from the root canal, in vitro. Int Endod J 1997;30(4):279-282.

94.           Rubio AJ, Segura JJ, Llamas R, Planas AJ, Guerrero JM, Calvo JR. In vitro study of the effect of sodium hypochlorite and glutaraldehyde on substrate adherence capacity of macrophages. J Endodon 1997;23(9):562-564.

95.           Blomlof J, Blomlof L, Lindskog S. Effect of different concentrations of EDTA on smear removal and collagen exposure in periodontitis-affected root surfaces. J Clin Periodontol 1997;24:534-537.

96.           Barkhordar RA, Watanabe LG, Marshall GW, Hussain MZ. Removal of intracanal smear by doxycycline iun vitro. Oral Surg 1997;84(4):420-423.

97.           Berutti E, Marini R, Angeretti A. Penetration ability of different irrigants into dentinal tubules. J Endodon 1997;23(12):725-727.

98.           Türkün M, Cengiz T. The effects of sodium hypochlorite and calcium hydroxide on tissue dissolution and root canal cleanliness. Int Endod J 1997;30:335-342.

99.           Calas P, Rochd T, Druilhet P, Azais JM. In vitro adhesion of two strains of prevotella nigrescens to the dentin of the root canal: the part played by different irrigation solutions. J Endodon 1998;24(2):112-115.

100.         Wadachi R, Araki A, Suda H. Effect of calcium hydroxide on the dissolution of soft tissue on the root canal wall. J Endodon 1998;24(4):326-330.

101.         Kuruvilla JR, Kamath MP. Antimicrobial activity of 2.5% sodium hypochlorite and 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate spearately and combined, as endodontic irrigants. J Endodon 1998;24(7):472-476.

102.         Stewart G. A scanning electron microscopic study of the cleansing effectiveness of three irrigating modalities on the tubular structure of dentin. J Endodon 1998;24(7):485-499.

103.         Busslinger A, Sener B, Barbakow F. Effects of sodium hypochlorite on nickel-titanium lightspeed instruments. Int Endodon J 1998;31:290-294.

104.         Huque J, Kota K, Yamaga M, Iwaku M, Hoshino E. Bacterial eradication from root dentine by ultrasonic irrigation with sodium hypochlorite. Int Endod J 1998;31:242-250.

105.         Sune-Pumarola J, Vicens-Sola L, Vilalta-Sentis J, Sahli-Canalda C, Aguade-Brau E. Absorbency properties of different brands of srandardized endodontic paper points. J Endodon 1998;24(12):796-798.

106.         Koulaouzidou EA, Margelos J, Beltes P, Kortsaris AH. Cytoxic effects of different concentrations of neutral and alkaline EDTA solutions used in root canal irrigants. J Endodon 1999;25(1):21-23.

107.         Lussi A, Eth DC, Portmann P, Nussbacher U, Imwinkelried S, Grosrey J. Comparison of two devices for root canal cleaning by the noninstrumentation technology. J Endodon 1999;25(1):9-13.

108.         Tatsuta CT, Morgan LA, Baumgartner JC, Adey JD. Effect of calcium hydroxide and four irrigation  regimens on instrumented and uninstrumented canal wall topography. J Endodon 1999;25(2):93-98.

109.         Leonardo MR, Filho MT, Silva LAB, Filho PN, Bonifacio KC, Ito IY. In vivo antimicrobial activity of 2% chlorhexidine used as a root canal irrigating solution. J Endodon 1999;25(3):167-171.

110.         Takeda F, Harashima T, Kimura Y, Matsumoto K. A comparative study of the removal of smear layer by three endodontic irrigants and two types of laser. Int Endo J 1999;32:32-39.

111.         Sen HB, Safavi KE, Spangberg LSW. Antifungal effects of sodium hypochlorite and chlorhexidine in root canals. J Endodon 1999;25(4):235-238.

112.         Lussi A, Imwinkelried S, Stich H. Obturation of root canals with different sealers using non-instrumentation technology. Int Endo J 1999;32:17-23.

113.         Chan CP, Jeng JH, Hsieh CC, Lin CL, Lei D, Chang MC. Morphological alterations associated with the cytotoxic and cytostatic effects of citric acid on cultured human dental pulp cells. J Endodon 1999;25(5):354-358.

114.         D'Arcangelo C, Varvara G, De Fazio P. An evaluation of the action of different root canal irrigants on facultative aerobic-anaerobic, obligate anaerobic, and microaerophilic bacteria. J Endodon 1999;25(5):351-353.

115.         Ayhan H, Sultan N, Cirak M, Ruhi MZ, Bodur H. Antimicrobial effects of various endodontic irrigants on selected microorganisms. Int Endod J 1999;32(2):99-102.

116.         Gambarini G. Shaping and cleaning the root canal system: a scanning electron microscopic evaluation of a new instrumentation and irrigation technique. J Endodon 1999;25(12):800-803.

117.         Heling I, Irani E, Karni S, Steinberg D. In vitro antimicrobial effect of RC-Prep within dentinal tubules. J Endodon 1999;25(12):782-785.

118.         Buck R, Eleazer PD, Staat RH. In vitro disinfection of dentinal tubules by various endodontics irrigants. J Endodon 1999;25(12):786-788.

119.         Peters OA, Barbakow F. Effects of irrigation on debris and smear layaer on canal walls prepared by two rotary techniques: a scanning electron microscopic study. J Endodon 2000;26(1):6-10.

120.         Shiozawa A. Characterization of reactive oxygen species generated from the misture of NaCIO and H2O2 used as root canal irrigants. J Endodon 2000;26(1):11-15.

121.         Mayhew J, Windchy A, Goldsmith L, Gettleman L. Efffect of root canal sealers and irrigation agents on retention of preformed posts luted with a resin cement. J Endodon 2000;26(6):341-344.

122.         Froes J, Horta H, da Silveria A. Smear layer influence on the apical seal of four different obturation techniques. J Endodon 2000;26(6):351-354.

123.         Bramante M, Vetti L. Comparative analysis of curved root canal preparation using nickel-titanium instruments with or without EDTA. J Endodon 2000;26(5):278-280.

124.         Shuping GB, Orstavik D, Sigurdsson A, Trope M. Reduction of intracanal bacteria using nickel-titanium rotary instrumentation and various medications. J Endodon 2000;26(12):751-755.

125.         Tasman F, Cehreli ZC, Ogan C, Etikan I. Surface tension of root canal irrigants. J Endodon 2000;26(10):586-587.

126.         O'Connell MS, Morgan LA, Beeler WJ, Baumgartner JC. A comparative study of smear layer removal using different salts of EDTA. J Endodon 2000;26(12):739-743.

127.         von Fraunhofer JA, Fagundes DK, McDonald NJ, Dumsha TC. The effect of root canal preparation on microleakage within endodontically treated teeth: an in vitro study. Int Endod J 2000;33:355-360.

128.         Siqueira JF, Jr., Rôças IN, Favieri A, Lima KC. Chemomechanical reduction of the bacterial population in the root canal after instrumentation and irrigation with 1%, 2.5%, and 5.25% sodium hypochlorite. J Endodon 2000;26(6):331-334.

129.         Heling I, Rotstein I, Dinur T-L, Y., Steinberg D. Bactericidal and cytotoxic effects of sodium hypochlorite and sodium dichloroisocyanurate solutions in vitro. J Endodon 2001;27(4):278-280.

130.         Ferraz CCR, Gomes BPF, Zaia AA, Teixeira FB, de Souza-Filho FJ. In vitro assessment of the antimicrobial action and the mechanical ability of chlorhexidine gel as an endodontic irrigant. J Endodon 2001;27(7):452-455.

131.         Timpawat S, Vongsavan N, Messer HH. Effect of removal of the smear layer on apical microleakage. J Endodon 2001;27(5):351-353.

132.         Grigoratos D, Knowles J, Ng Y-L, Gulabivala K. Effect of exposing dentine to sodium hypochlorite and calcium hydroxide on its flexural strength and elastic moculus. Int Endodo J 2001;34:113-119.

133.         Sim TPC, Knowles JC, Ng Y-L, Shelton J, Gulabivala K. Effect of sodium hypochlorite on mechanical properties of dentine and tooth surface strain. Int Endod J 2001;34:120-132.

134.         Evans GE, Speight PM, Gulabivala K. The influence of preparation technique and sodium hypochlorite on removal of pulp and predentine from root canals of posterior teeth. Int Endod J 2001;34:322-330.

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138.         Hales JJ, Jackson CR, Everett AP, Moore SH. Treatment protocol for the mnagement of a sodium hypochlorite accident during endodontic therapy. Gen Dent 2001(May/June):278-281.

139.         Becker TD, Woollard GW. Endodontic irrigation. Gen Dent 2001(May/June):272-276.

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142.         Siqueira JF, Jr., Rocas IN, Santos SRLD, Lima KC, Magalhaes FAC, de Uzeda M. Efficacy of instrumentation techniques and irrigation regimens in reducing the bacterial population within root canals. J Endodon 2002;28(3):181-184.

143.         Slutzky-Goldberg I, Liberman R, Heling I. The effect of instrumentation with two different file types, each with 2.5% NaOCl irrigation on the microhardness of root dentin. J Endodon 2002;28(4):311-312.

144.         Filho MT, Leonardo MR, da Silva LAB. Effect of irrigating solutuin and calcium hydroxide root canal dressing of the repair of apical and periapical tissues of teeth with periapical lesion. J Endodon 2002;28(4):295-299.

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146.         Bradford CE, Eleazer PD, Downs KE, Scheetz JP. Apical pressures developed by needles for canal irrigation. J Endodon 2002;28(4):333-335.

147.         Serper A, Calt S. The demineralizing effects of EDTA at different concentrations and pH. J Endodon 2002;28(7):501-502.

148.         Yang S-E, Bae K-S. Scanning electron microscopy study of the adhesion of prevotella nigrescens to the dentin of prepared root canals. J Endodon 2002;28(6):433-437.

149.         Abramovitz I, Better H, Shacham A, Shlomi B, Metzger Z. Case selection for apical surgery: a retrospective evaluation of associated factors and rational. J Endodon 2002;28(7):527-530.

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151.         Peters L, van Winkelhoff A-J, Buijs J, Wesselink PR. Effects of instrumentation, irrigation and dressing with calcium hydroxide on infection in ppulpless teeth with periapical bone lesions. Int Endod J 2002;35:13-21.

152.         Meares WA, Steiman HR. The influence of sodium hypochlorite irrigation on the accuracy of the root ZX electronic apex locator. J Endodon 2002;28(8):595-598.

153.         Seal G, Ng Y-L, Spratt D, Bhatti M, Gulabivala K. An in vitro comparison of the bactericidal efficacy of lethal photosensitization of sodium hyphochlorite irrigation on Streptococcus intermedius biofilms in root canals. Int Endod J 2002;35:268-274.

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156.         Mayer B, Peters OA, Barbakow F. Effects of rotary instruments and ultrasonic irrigation on debris and smear layer scores: a scanning electron microscopic study. Int Endod J 2002;35:582-589.

157.         Vivacqua-Gomez N, Ferraz CCR, Gomes BPFA, Zaia AA, Teixeira FB, Souza-Filho FJ. Influence of irrigants on the coronal microleakage of laterally condensed gutta-percha root fillings. Int Endod J 2002;35:791-795.

158.         Filho M, Leonardo MR, Silva LAB, Anibal F, Faccioli L. Inflammatory response to different endodontic irrigating solutions. Int Endod J 2002;25:735-739.

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160.         Buhrley LJ, Barrows MJ, BeGole EA, Wenckus CS. Effect of magnification on locating the MB2 canal in maxillary molars. J Endodon 2002;28(4):324-327.

161.         Spoleti P, Siragusa M, Spoleti MJ. Bacteriological evaluation of passive ultrasonic activation. J Endodon 2003;29(1):12-14.

162.         Davis JL, Jeansonne BG, Davenport WD, Gardiner D. The effect of irrigation with doxycycline or citric acid on leakage and osseous would healing. J Endodon 2003;29(1):31-35.

163.         Ferguson DB, Marley JT, Hartwell G. The effect of chlorhexidine gluconate as an endodontic irrigant on the apical seal: long-term results. J Endodon 2003;29(2):91-94.

164.         Segura-Egea JJ, Jimenez-Rubio A, Rios-Santos JV, Velasco-Ortega E, Calvo-Gutierrez R. In vitro inhibitory effect of EGTA on macrophage adhesion: endodontic implications. J Endodon 2003;29(3):211-213.

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