Tooth Lightening: Internal and External 2011

Objectives and Goals

  • be familiar with the various materials and techniques for lightening vital and nonvital teeth.
  • be familiar with the indications and contraindications for lightening.
  • be familiar with the possible complications of lightening vital and nonvital teeth, as well as the etiologies of discolorations and treatment of complications.
  • be familiar with the prognosis of lightening.

Spasser H.  A simple bleaching technique using sodium perborate.  NY State Dent J 1961 27:7;332-334

5-6      Nutting EB, Poe GS. A new combination for bleaching teeth. J So Calif State Dental Assoc 1963;31:289.

6-1      Brown G. Factors influencing successful bleaching of the discolored root-filled tooth. Oral Surg 1965;20:238.

all        Harrington GW, Natkin E. External resorption associated with bleaching of ab 1   pulpless teeth. J Endodon 1979;5(11):344 - 353.

2-3      Freccia WF, Peters DD, Lorton L, Bernier WE. An in vitro comparison of nonvital bleaching techniques in the discolored tooth. JEndodon1982 8(2):70-77.

3-4      Friedman S, Rotstein I, Libfeld H, Stabholz A, Heling I. Incidence of external root resorption and esthetic results in 58 bleached pulpless teeth. Endod Dent Traumatol1988;4(1):23 - 27.

4-5      Gimlin D, Schindler W.  The management of postbleaching cervical resorption.  J Endodon 1990;16(6):292-297

5-6      Rotstein I. In vitro efficacy of sodium perborate used for intracoronal bleaching of discolored nonvital teeth. Endod Dent Traumatol 1991;7:177.

6-1      Rotstein I. Effect of different protective base materials on hydrogen peroxide leakage during intracoronal bleaching in vitro. J Endodon 1992;18(3):114.

all        Haywood VB. Bleaching of vital and nonvital teeth. Perio and Rest Dent no ab    1992;142-149.            

1-2      Lewinstein I, Hirschfeld Z, Stabholz A, Rotstein I.  Effect of hydrogen peroxide and sodium perborate on the microhardness of human enamel and dentin. J Endodon 1994;20(2):61-63.

2-3      Zalkind M, Arwaz JR, Goldman A, Rotstein I. Surface morphology changes in human enamel, dentin and cementum following bleaching: a scanning electron microscopy study. Endod Dent Tramatol1996;12:82-88.

3-4      Jimenez-Rubio A, Segura JJ. The effect of the bleaching agent sodium perborate on macrophage adhesion in vitro: implications in external cervical root resorption. J Endodon 1998;4:229.

4-5      Anderson D, Chiego D, Glickman G, McCauley L. A clinical assessment of the effects of 10% carbamide peroxide gel on human pulp tissue. JEndodon 1999;      4:247-250.

5-6      Potocnik I, Kosec L, Gaspersic D.  Effect of 10% carbamide peroxide bleaching gel on enamel microhardness, microstructure, and mineral content.  J Endodon 2000:4;203-206.

All,no  Attin T, Paque F, Ajam F, Lennon A.  Review of the current status of tooth whitening with the walking bleach technique.  Int Endo J  2003:36;313-329

6-1      Timpawat S, Nipattamonon C, Kijsamanmith K, Messer H.  Effect of bleaching agents on bonding to pulp chamber dentine.  Int Endo J 2005:38;211-217

1-2      Gokay O, Mujdeci A, Algin E.  Invitro peroxide penetration into the pulp chamber from newer bleaching products.  Int Endo J 2005:38;516-520

2-3      Biedma B, Gonzalez T, Lopes M, Lopes L, Vilar R, Babillo J, Patino P.  Colorimeter and scanning electron microscopy analysis of teeth submitted to internal bleaching.  J Endodon 2010 36:2;334-337

3-4      Kina J, Huck C, Riehl H, Martinez T, Sacono N, Ribeiro A, Costa C.  Response of human pulps after professionally applied vital tooth bleaching.  Int Endo J 2010 43:572-580

All       Lovato K.  Salsa that will rip the enamel right off your teeth. J ElephBte Dent Soc 2011 1:1

all        Ingle's Endodontics. 6th edition. 2008:1383-1399


opt       Owen LN. The effects of administering tetracyclines to young dogs with particular reference to localization of the drugs in the teeth. Arch Oral Biol 1963;8:715-727.

opt       Bennett IC, Law DB. Incorporation of tetracycline in developing dog enamel and dentin. J Dent Res 1964;44:788-793.

opt       Mello HS.  The mechanism of tetracycline staining in primary and permanent teeth. JDC 1967;478.

opt       Gutierrez JH, Guzman M. Tooth discoloration in endodontic procedures. Oral Surg 1968;26:706.

opt       Cohen S.  Human pulpal response to bleaching procedures  on vital teeth.  J Endodon 1979 5:134.

opt       Robertson WD, Melfi RC. Pulpal response to vital bleaching procedures. J Endodon 1980;6(7):645 - 649.

opt       Walton RE, O'Dell NL, Myers DL, Lake FT, Shimp RG. External bleaching of tetracycline stained teeth in dogs. J Endodon1982;8(12):536 - 542.

opt       Abou-Ross M. The elimination of tetracycline discoloration by intentional endodontics and internal bleaching. J Endodon1982;8(3):101-106.

opt       Freccia WF, Peters DD, Lorton L. An evaluation of various permanent restorative materials effect on the shade of bleached teeth. J Endodon1982;8(6):265 - 268.

opt       Lado EA, Stanley HR, Weisman MI. Cervical resorption in bleached teeth. Oral Surg 1983;55(1):78-80.

opt       Walton RE, O'Dell NL, Lake FT, Shimp RG. Internal bleaching of tetracycline-stained     teeth in dogs. J Endodon 1983;9(10):416 - 420.

opt       Montgomery S. External cervical resorption after bleaching a pulpless tooth. Oral Surg 1984;57(2):203-206.

opt       Lake FT, O'Dell NI, Walton RE. The effect of internal bleaching on tetracycline in dentin. J Endodon 1985;11(10):415 - 420.

opt       Goon WWY, Cohen S, Borer RF. External cervical root resorption following bleaching. JEndodon 1986;12(9):414 - 418.

opt       Feiglin B. A 6-year recall study of clinically chemically bleached teeth. Oral Surg 1987;63(5):610-613.

opt       Kehoe JC. pH reversal following in vitro bleaching of pulpless teeth. J Endodon1988;13(1):6 - 9.

opt       Bowles WH, Ugwuneri Z.  Pulp chamber penetration by hydrogen peroxide following vital bleaching procedures.  J Endodon 1987;13(8):375-377.

opt       Holmstrup G, Palm AM, Lambjerg-Hansen H. Bleaching of discoloured root-filled teeth. Endod Dent Traumatol 1988;4(5):197 - 201.

opt       Friedman S.  Surgical-restorative treatment of bleaching-related external  root resorption. Endod Dent Traumatol 1989;5(1):63.

opt       Warren MA, Wong M, Ingram TAI. An in vitro comparison of bleaching agents on the crowns and roots of discolored teeth. J Endodon 1990;16(10):463 - 467.

opt       Gimlin DR, Schindler WG. The management of postbleaching cervical resorption. J        Endodon 1990;16(6):292 - 297.

opt       Madison S, Walton R. Cervical root resorption following bleaching of endodontically treated teeth. J Endodon 1990;16(12):570 - 574.

opt       Costas F. Intracoronal isolating barriers: Effect of location of root leakage and effectiveness of bleaching agents. J Endodon 1991;17(8):365.

opt       Glickman G.  Adverse response to vital bleaching.  J Endodon 1992;18(7);351.

opt       Cooper J. Penetration of the pulp chamber by carbamide peroxide bleaching agents. J Endodon 1992;18(7):315.

opt       Schulte JR. The effects of bleaching application time on the dental pulp. JADA   1994;125:1330.

opt       Weiger R, Kuhn A, Lost C. Radicular penetration of hydrogen peroxide during intra-coronal bleaching with various forms of sodium perborate. Int Endod J 1994;27(6):313-317.

opt       MacIsaac AM, Hoen MM.  Intracoronal bleaching: Concerns andconsiderations.  J Can Dent Assoc 1994;60:57-64.

opt       Koulaouzidou E, Lambrianidis T, Beltes P, Lyroudia K. Papadopoulos C. Role of cementoenamel junction on the radicular penetration of 30% hydrogen peroxide during intracoronal bleaching in vitro. Endod Dent Traumatol 1996;12:146-150.

opt       Nathanson D. Vital tooth bleaching:sensitivity and pulpal considerations. JADA 1997;128:41S.

opt       Nathoo SA. The chemistry and mechanisms of extrinsic and intrinsic discoloration. JADA 1997;128:6S.

opt       Haywood V.  Nightguard vital bleaching:currents and research. JADA 1997;128:19S.

opt       Koulaouzidou E, Lambrianidis T, Konstantinidis A, Kortsaris AH. In vitro evaluation of    the cytotoxicity of a bleaching agent. Endod Dent Traumatol 1998;14: 21-25.

            Gokay O, Yilmaz F, Akin S, Tuncbilek M, Ertan R. Penetration of the pulp chamber by bleaching agents in teeth restored with various restorative materials. J Endodon 2000:2;92-94.

            Amato M, Scaravilli M, Farella M, Riccitiello F.  Bleaching teeth treated endodontically: Long-term evaluation of a case series.  J Endodon 2006:32(4);376-378