Endodontic Sealers

Objectives and Goals

  • recognize and defend the need for sealer usage in endodontic obturation
  • list desirable and undesirable properties of available sealers
  • understand the effects of film thickness, spatulation, particle size and other traits on the handling characteristics and physical properties of sealers.
  • understand the various types of sealers available and how to classify them.
  • discuss cytotoxicity of sealers and its importance/relevance.

Pathways of the Pulp.  Cohen,S and Hargreaves K, eds.  9th Edition. Pages 265-273; 368-372. C.V. Mosby Company. 2006.

Antoniazzi JH, Mjor IA, Nygaard-Ostby  B.  Assessment of the sealing properties             of root filling materials.  Odont Tids 76:261. 1968.

Weiner BH, Schilder H.  A comparative study of important physical properties of various root canal sealers II. Evaluation of dimensional changes.  Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 32:928-937. 1971.

Spangberg L, Langeland K.  Biologic effects of dental materials I. Toxicity of root canal filling materials on HeLa cells in vitro.  Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 35:402-414. 1973.

Grossman LI.  Physical properties of root canal cements. J Endodon 2:166-175. 1976.

Vermilyea SG, Simon LB, Huget EF.  The rheologic properties of endodontic sealers.  Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 46:711-716. 1978.

Gordon TM, Alexander JB.  Influence of pH level of two calcium hydroxide root canal sealers in vitro.  Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 61:624-628. 1986. 1988 Brodin P.  Neurotoxic and analgesic effects of root canal cements and pulp-protecting dental materials.  Endod Dent Traumatol  4:1-11 1988

Spangberg L, Pascon EA.  The importance of material preparation for the expression of cytotoxicity during in vitro evaluation of biomaterials.  J Endodon 214:247-250. 1988.

Boiesen J, Brodin P.  Neurotoxic effect of two root canal sealers with calcium hydroxide on rat phrenic nerve in vitro.  Endod Dent Traumatol 7:242-245 1991

Gettleman BH, Messer HH, ElDeeb ME.  Adhesion of sealer cements to dentin with and without the smear layer.  J Endodon 17:15-20. 1991.

Siqueira JF, Goncalves RB.  Antibacterial activities of rot canal sealers against selected anaerobic bacteria.  J Endodon 22:79-80. 1996

Economides N, Liolios E, Kolokuris I, Beltes P.  Long-term evaluation of the influence of smear layer removal on the sealing ability of different sealers.  J Endodon 25:123-125. 1999.

Allan N, Walton R, Schaffer M.  Setting times for endodontic sealers under clinical usage and in vitro conditions.   J Endodon 27:421-423. 2001.

Lertchirkarn V, Timyam A, Messer H.  Effects of root canal sealers on vertical root fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth.  J Endodon 28:217-219. 2002.   Lee K, Williams M, Camps J, Pashley D.  Adhesion of endodontic sealers to dentin and gutta percha.  J Endodon 28:684-688. 2002.

Miletić I, Prpić-Mehičić G, Maršan T, Tambić-Andrašević A, Pleško S, Karlović Z, Anić I. Bacterial and fungal microleakage of AH26 and AH Plus root canal sealers. Int Endod J 2002;35:428-432.

Saleh M, Ruyter IE, Haapasalo M, Orstavik D. The effects of dentine pretreatment on the adhesion of root-canal sealers. Int Endod J 2002;35:859-866.

Miletić I, Jukić S, Anić I, ?eljezić D, Garaj-Vrhovac V, Osmak M.  Examination of cytotoxicity and mutagenicity of AH26 and AH Plus sealers. Int Endo J 36:330-335. 2003.

Saleh IM, Ruyter IE, Haapasalo MP, Ørstavik D. Adhesion of endodnotic sealers: scanning electron micrcoscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. J Endodon 29:595. September, 2003.

Kokkas AB, Boutsioukis AC, Vassiliadis LP, Stavrianos CK. The influence of the smear layer on dentinal tubule penetration depth by three different root canal sealers: an in vitro study. J Endodon 2004;30(2):100-102.

Saleh IM, Ruyter IE, Haapasalo M, Ørstavik D. Survival of Enterococcus faecalis in infected dentinal tubules after root canal filling with different root canal sealers in vitro. Int Endod J 2004;37:193-198.

Nielsen BA, Beeler WJ, Vy C, Baumgartner JC. Setting times of Resilon and other sealers in aerobic and anaerobic environments. J Endodon 32:130. February, 2006.

Tay FR, Hiraishi N, Pashley DH, Loushine RJ, Weller N Gillespie WT, Doyle MD. Bondability of resilon to a methacrylate-based root canal sealer. J Endodon 32:133. February, 2006.

Sari S & Durutűrk L. Radiographic evaluation of periapical healing of permanent teeth with periapical lesions after extrusion of AH Plus sealer. OOOO&E 104:e54. September, 2007.


Guttuso J. Histopathologic study of rat connective tissue responses to endodontic materials. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 16:713. June , 1963.

Norman RD, Phillips RW, Swartz ML, FrankiewiczT. The effect of paricle size on the physical properties of zinc oxide-Eugenol mixtures. J Dent Res 43:252. February, 1964.

Kapsimalis P & Evans R. Sealing properties of endodontic filling materials using radioactive polar and nonpolar isotopes. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 22:386. September, 1966.

Higginbotham TL. A comparative study of the physical properties of commonly used root canal sealers. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 24:89. July, 1967.

Weiner BH, Schilder H.  A comparative study of important physical properties of various root canal sealers I. Evaluation of setting times. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 32:768-777. 1971.

Younis O & Hembree JH. Leakage of different root canal sealants. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 41:777. June, 1976.

Beyer-Olsen EM, Orstavik D.  Radiopacity of root canal sealers.  Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 51:320-328. 1979.

Torabinejad M, Kettering JD, Bakland LK. Evaluation of systemic immunological reactions to AH-26 root canal sealer. J Endodon 5:196. July, 1979.

Rowe AHR. Problems of intra-canal testing of endodontic materials. Int Endo J 13: 96. 1980.

Wennberg A. Biological evaluation of root canal sealers using in vitro and in vivo methods. J Endodon 6:784. October, 1980.

Spangberg LSW.  In vitro assessment of the toxicity of endodontic materials.   Int Endodon J  14:27-34. 1981.

Orstavik D.  Antibacterial properties of root canals sealers, cements and pastes.  Int Endodon J  14:125-133. 1981.

Olsson B, Sliwkowski A, Langeland K. Subcutaneous implantation for the biological evaluation of endodontic materials. J Endodon 7:355. August, 1981.

Block RM, Lewis RD, Sheats JB, Burke SH, Fawley J.  Antibody formation and cell-mediated immunity to dog pulp tissue altered by eight endodontic sealers via the root canal.  Int Endodon J  15:105-113. 1982.

Matloff IR, Jensen JR, Singer L, Tabibi A. A comparison of methods used in root canal sealability studies. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 53:203. February, 1982.

Von Fraunhofer JA & Branstetter J. The physical properties of four endodontic sealer cements. J Endodon 8: 126. March, 1982.

Ørstavik D. Seating of gutta-percha points: effect of sealers with varying film thickness. J Endodon 8:213. May, 1982.

Branstetter J & Von Fraunhofer JA. The physical properties and sealing action of endodontic sealer cements: a review of literature. J Endodon 8:312. July, 1982. Kettering JD & Torabinejad M. Cytotoxicity of root canal sealers: a study using HeLa cells  and fibroblasts. Int Endo J 17:60. January, 1984.

Cohen T, Gutman JL, Wagner M. An assessment in vitro of the sealing properties of Calcibiotic root canal sealer. Int Endo J 18:172. 1985.

Alexander JB & Gordon TM. A comparison of the apical seal produced by two calcium hydroxide sealers and a Grossman-type sealer when used with lateral condensed gutta-percha. Quint Int 9:615. 1985.

Negm MN, Liley JD, Combe EC. A study of the viscosity and working time of the resin-based root canal sealers. J Endodon 11:442. October, 1985.

Jeffrey IWM, Saunders WP, Thomas GE. An investigation into the movement of sealer during placement of gutta-percha points. Int Endo J 19:21. January, 1986.

Madison S, Swanson K, Chiles SA.  An evaluation of coronal microleakage in endodontically treated teeth. Part II. Sealer types.  J Endodon 13:109-112. 1987.

Ørstavik D & Mjör IA. Histopathology and x-ray microanalysis of the subcutaneous tissure response to endodontic sealers. J Endodon 14:13. January, 1988.

Murphy WM. The testing of endodontic materials in vitro. Int Endo J 21:170. 1988.

Hoen MN, LaBounty GL, Keller DL. Ultrasonic endodontic sealer placement. J Endodon 14:169. April, 1988.

Tagger M, Tagger E, Kfir A.  Release of calcium and hydroxyl ions from set endodontic sealers containing calcium hydroxide.  J Endodon 14:588-591. 1988.

Arenholt-Bindslev D & Hörsted-Bindslev P. A simple model for evaluating relative toxicity of root filling materials in cultures of human oral fibroblasts. Endo Dent Traumatol 5:219. 1989.

Safavi KE, Spangberg LSW, Costa NS, Sapounas G.  An in vitro method for longitudinal evaluation of toxicity of endodontic sealers.   J Endodon 15:484-486. 1989.

West LA, LaBounty GL, Keller DL. Obturation quality utilizing ultrasonic cleaning and sealer placement followed by lateral condensation with gutta-percha. J Endodon 15:507. November, 1989.

Wennberg A, Ørstavik D, Niom. Adhesion of root canal sealers to bovine dentine and gutta-percha. Int Endo J 23:13. January, 1990.

Arenholt-Bindslev D & Bleeg H. Characterization of two types of human oral fibroblast with a potential application to cellular toxicityt studies: tooth pulp fibroblast and buccal mucosa fibroblasts. Int Endo J 23:84. January, 1990.

Sugawara A, Chow LC, Takagi S, Chohayeb H. In vitro evaluation of the sealing ability of a calcium phosphate cement when used as a root canal sealer-filler. J Endodon 16:162. April, 1990.

Soares I, Goldberg F, Massone EJ, Soares IM. Periapical tissue response to two calcium hydroxide-containing endodontic sealers. J Endodon 16:166. April, 1990.

Briseño B & Willershausen B. Root canal sealer cytotoxicity on human gingival fibroblasts. I. Zinc oxide-eugenol-based sealers. J Endodn 16:383. August, 1990.

Jacobsen EL & Shugars KA. The sealing efficacy of a zinc oxide-eugenol cement, a cyanocrylate, and a cavity varnish used as root canal cements. J Endodon 16:516. November, 1990.

Al-khatib ZZ, Baum RH, Morse DR, Yesilsoy C, Bhambhani S, Furst ML. The antimicrobial effect of various endodontic sealers. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 70:784. December, 1990.

Wiemann AH, Wilcox LR.  In vitro evaluation of four methods of sealer placement.  J Endodon 17:444-447. 1991.

Maseki T, Nakata K, Kohsaka T, Kobayashi F, Hirano S, Nakamura H.  Lack of correlation between the amount of eugenol released from zinc oxide-eugenol sealer and cytotoxicity of the sealer.  J Endodon 17:76-79. 1991.

Gulati N, Chandra S, Aggarwal PK, Jaiswal JN, Singh M. Cytotoxicity of eugenol in sealer containing zinc-oxide. Endod Dent Traumatol 7:181. 1991.

Oliver CM, Abbott PV.  Entrapped air and its effect on dye penetration of voids.  Endod Dent Traumatol 7:135-138 1991.

Friedman S, Moshonov J, Trope M.  Efficacy of removing glass ionomer cement, zinc oxide-eugenol and epoxy resin sealers from retreated root canals.  Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 73:609-612. 1992.

Koch K, Min PS, Stewart GG.  Comparison of apical leakage between Ketac Endo sealer and Grossman sealer.  Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 78:784-787. 1994.

Horning TG, Kessler JR.  A comparison of three different root canal sealers when used to obturate a moisture-contaminated root canal system.  J Endodon 21:354-357. 1995.

Wu MK, Wesselink PR, Boersma J.  A 1-year follow-up study of four root canal sealers at different thicknesses.  Int Endodon J 28:185-189. 1995.

Holland R. Sakashita MS, Murata SS, Junior ED.  Effect of dentine surface treatment on leakage of root fillings with a glass ionomer sealer.  Int Endodon J   28:190-193. 1995.

Rohde TR, Bramwell JD, Hutter JW, Roahen JO.  An in vitro evaluation of microleakage of a new root canal sealer. J Endodon 22:365-368. 1996.

Esberard RM, Carnes DL, del Rio CE.  pH changes at the surface of root dentin when using root canal sealers containing calcium hydroxide.  J Endodon 22:399-401. 1996.

Bezerra Silva LA, Leonardo MR, Faccioli LH, Figueiredo F. Inflammatory response to calcium hydroxide based root canal sealers. J Endodon 23:86. February, 1997.

Kontakakiotis EG, Wu M-K, Wesselink PR.  Effect of sealer thickness on longterm sealing ability:a 2-year followup study.  Int Endodon J 30:307 1997.

Beltes P, Koulaouzidou E, Kolokuris I, Kortsaris AH.  In vitro evaluation of the cytotoxicity of two glass-ionomer root canal sealers.  J Endodon 23:572-574. 1997.

Kahn FH, Rosenberg PA, Schertzer L, Korthals G, Nguyen PNT.  An in-vitro evaluation of sealer placement methods.  Int Endodon J 30:181-186 1997.

Osorio RM, Hefti A, Vertucci F, Shawley A.  Cytotoxicity of endodontic materials.  J Endodon 24:91-96. 1998.

Koulaouzidou EA, Papazisis KT, Beltes P, Geromichalos GD, Kortsaris AH. Cytotoxicity of three resin-based root canal sealers: an in vitro study. Endod Dent Trauamtol 14:182. 1998.

Kouvas V, Liolios E, Vassiliadis L, Parissis-Messimeris S, Boutsioukis A. Influence of smear layer on depth of penetration of three endodontic sealers: an SEM study. Endod Dent Trauamtol 14:191. 1998.

Holland R, Otoboni Filho JA, Bernabé PFE, Souza V, Nery MJ, Dezan Jr E. Effect of root canal filling material and level of surgical injury on periodontal healing in dogs. Endod Dent Trauamtol 14:199. 1998.

Kolokouris I, Kotsaki-Kovatsi V-P, Poulopoulos A, Rozos G, Vlemmas I. Influence of zinc oxide and eugenol sealer on concentration of zinc, calcium and copper in rat tissues. Endod Dent Trauamtol 14:210. 1998.

Ono K, Matsumoto K.  Physical properties of CH61, a newly developed root canal sealer. J Endodon 24:244-247. 1998.

Siqueira JF, Jr., Rôças IN, Lopes HP, de Uzeda M. Coronal leakage of two root canal sealers containing calcium hydroxide after exposure to human saliva. J Endodon 1999;25(1):14-16.

Lussi A, Imwinkelried S, Stich H. Obturation of root canals with different sealers using non-instrumentation technology. Int Endo J 1999;32:17-23.

Mickel AK & Wright RE. Growth inhibition of streptococcus anginosus (milleri) by three calcium hydroxide sealers and one zinc oxide-Eugenol sealer. J Endodon 25:34. January, 1999.

Leyhausen G, Heil J, Reifferscheid G, Waldmann P, Geurtsen W. Genotoxicity and cytotoxicity of the epoxy resin-based root canal sealer AH Plus. J Endodon 25:109. February, 1999.

Leonardo MR, Bezerra da Silva LA, Tanomaru Filho M, Santana da Silva R, Preto A & R. Release of formaldehyde by 4 endodontic sealers. OOOO&E 88:221. February, 1999.

Apicella MJ, Loushine RJ, West LA, Runyan DA. A comparison of root fracture resistance using two root canal sealers. Int Endo J32:376. 1999.

Ersev K, Schmalz G, Bayirili G, Schweikl H. Cytotoxic and mutagenic potencies of various root canal filling materials in eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells in vitro. J Endodon 25:359. May, 1999.

Miletić I, Anić I, Pezeelj-Ribarić S, Jukić S. Leakage of five root canal sealers. Int Endo J 32:415. 1999.

Guigand M, Pellen-Mussi P, Le Goff A, Vulcain J-M, Bonnaure-Mallet M. Evaluation of the cytocompatibility of three endodontic materials. J Endodon 25:419. June, 1999.

Cált S, Serper A. Dentinal tubule penetration of root canal sealers after root canal dressing with calcium hydroxide. J Endodon 1999;25(6):431-433.

Sousa-Neto MD, Guimarães LF, Saquy PC, Pécora JD. Effect of different grades of gum rosins and hydrogenated resins on the solubility, disintegration, and dimensional alterations of  Grossman cement. J Endodon 25:477. July, 1999.

Özata F, Önal B, Erdilek N, Türkün SL. A comparative study of apical leakage of Apexit, Ketac- Endo, and Diaket root canal sealers. J Endodon 25:603. September, 1999.

Hashieh IA, Pommel L, Camps J. Concentration of eugenol apically released from zinc oxide-eugenol-based sealers. J Endodon 25:713. November, 1999.

Holland R, de Souza V, Nery MJ, Filho JAO, Bernabe PFE, Dezan E, Jr. Reaction of dogs' teeth to root canal filling with mineral trioxide agregrate or a glass ionomer sealer. J Endodon 1999;25(11):728-734.

McDougall IG, PatelV, Santerre P, Friedman S. Resistance of experimental glass ionomer cement sealers to bacterial penetration in vitro. J Endodon 25:739. November, 1999.

Lalh MS, Titley K, Torneck CD, Friedman S. Scanning electron microscopic study of the interface of glass ionomer cement sealers and conditioned bovine dentin. J Endodon 25:743. November, 1999.

Telli C, Serper A, Dogen L, . Evaluation of cytotoxicity of calcium phosphate root canal sealers by MTT assay. J Endodon 25:811. December, 1999.

Friedman S, Komorowski R, Maillet W, Klimaite R, Nguyen HQ, Torneck CD. In vivo resistance of coronally induced bacterial ingress by an experimental glass ionomer cement root canal sealer. J Endodon 2000;26(1):1-5.

Whitworth JM & Boursin. Dissolution of root canal sealer cements in volatile solvents. Int Endo J 33:19. January, 2000.

Patel V, Santerre P, Friedman S. Suppression of bacterial adherence by experimental root canal sealers. J Endodon  26:1. January, 2000.

Lyroudia K, Pantelidou O, Mikrogeorgis G, Nikopoulos N, Pitas I. Three-Dimensional reconstruction: a new method for the evaluation of apical microleakage. J Endodon  26:36. January, 2000.

Cohen BI, Pagnillo MK, Musikant BL, Deutsch AS. An in vitro study of the cytotoxicity of two root canal sealers. J Endodon  26:228. April, 2000.

Kataoka H, Yoshioka t, Suda H, Imai Y. Dentin bonding and sealing ability of a new root canal resin sealer. J Endodon  26:230. April, 2000.

Leirkar J & Nordbø H. The effect of zinc oxide-eugenol on the shear bond strength of a commonly used bonding system. Endod Dent Traumatol 16:265. 2000.

Miletić I, Anić I, Karlopvić Z, Pezelj-Ribarić, Osmak M. Cytotoxic effect of four root filling materials. Endod Dent Traumatol 16:287. 2000.

Siqueira JF Jr, Favieri A, Gahyva SMM, Moraes SR, Lima KC, Lopes HP. Antimicrobial activity and flow rate of newer and established root canal sealers. J Endodon  26:274. May, 2000.

De Moor RJM & De Boever JG. The sealing ability of an epoxy resin root canal sealer used with five gutta-percha obturation techniques. Endod Dent Traumatol 16:291. 2000.

Hosoya N, Nomura M, Yoshikubo A, Arai T, Nakamura J, Cox CF. Effect of canal drying methods on the apical seal. J Endodon  26:292. May, 2000.

Jukić S, Miletić I, Anić I, Britvić S, Osmak M, Sistig S. The mutagenic potential of AH+ and AH26 by salmonella/microsome assay. J Endodon  26:321. June, 2000.

Leonardo RT, Consolaro A, Carlos IZ, Leonardo MR. Evaluation of cell culture cytotoxicity of five root canal sealers. J Endodon  26:328. June, 2000.

Mayhew J, Windchy A, Goldsmith L, Gettleman L. Efffect of root canal sealers and irrigation agents on retention of preformed posts luted with a resin cement. J Endodon 2000;26(6):341-344.

Durate MAH, Cardosa de Oliveira Demarchi C, Giaxa MH, Kuga MC, de Campos Fraga S, Duarte de Souza LC. Evaluation of pH and calcium ion release of three root canal sealers. J Endodon  26:389. July, 2000.

Leonardo MR, da Silva LAB, Filho MT, Bonifácio C, Ito IY. In vitro evaluation of antimicrobial activity of sealers and pastes used in endodontics. J Endodon  26:391. July, 2000.

Fuss Z, Charniaque O, Pilo R, Weiss E. Effect of various mixing ratios on antibacterial properties and hardness of endodontic sealers. J Endodon  26:519. September, 2000.

Willerhausen B, Marroquín BB, Schäfer D, Schulze R. Cytotoxicity of root canal filling materials to three different human cell lines. J Endodon  26:703. December, 2000.

Timpawat S, Amornchat C, Trisuwan W. Bacterial coronal leakage after obturation with three root canal sealers. J Endodon 2001;27(1):36-39.

Waltimo TMT, Boiesen J, Eriksen HM, Ørstavik D. Clinical performance of 3 endodontic sealers. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radio Endod 2001;92:89-92.

Timpawat S, Harnirattisai C, Senawongs P. Adhesion of a glass-ionomer root canal sealer to the root canal wall. J Endodon 27:168. March, 2001.

Figueiredo JAP, Pesce HF, Gioso MA, Figueiredo AZ. The histological effects of four endodontic sealers implanted in the oral mucosa: submucosa injection versus implant in polyethylene tubes. Int Endo J 34:377. 2001.

Koch MJ, Wünstel E, Dipl-lng (FH), Stein G. Formaldehyde release from gound root canal sealer in vitro. J Endodon 27:396. June, 2001. 

Tai K, Huang F, Chang Y. Cytotoxic evaluation of root canal filling materials on primary human oral fibroblast cultures and a permanent hamster cell line. J Endodon 27:571. September, 2001.

Cherng AM, Chow LC, Takagi S. In vitro evaluation of a calcium phosphate cement root canal filler/sealer. J Endodon 27:613. October, 2001.    

Parsons JR, Walton RE, Ricks-Williamson L. In vitro longitudinal assessment of coronal discoloration from endodontic sealers. J Endodon 2001;27(11):699-702.

Heung T, Lee H, Kao C. Evaluation of the genotoxicity of zinc oxide eugenol-based, calcium hydroxide-based, and epoxy resin-based root canal sealers by comet assay. J Endodon 27:744. December, 2001.

Huang F, Tai K, Chou M, Chang Y. Cytotoxicity of resin-, zinc oxide-eugenol-, and calcium hydroxide-based root canal sealers on human periodontal ligaments cells and permanent V79 cells. Int Endo J 35:153. February, 2002.

Holland R, de Souza V, Nery MJ, Bernabé PFE, Filho JAO, Murata SS. Calcium salts deposition in rat connective tissue after the implanting of calcium hydroxide-containing sealers. J Endodon 28:173. March, 2002.

Sousa –Neto M, Marchesan MA, Pécora JD, Brugnera Junior A, Silva-Sousa YTC, Saquy PC. Effect of Er:Yag Laser on adhesion of root canal sealers. J Endodon 28:185. March, 2002.

Tagger M, Tagger E, Tjan AH, Bakland LK. Measurement of adhesion of endodontic sealers to dentin. J Endodon 28:351. May, 2002.

Hagge MS, Wong RDM, Lindemuth JS. Effect of three root canal sealers on the retentive strength of endodontic posts luted with a resin cement. Int Endo J 35:372. 2002.

Cohen BI, Musikant BL, Deutsch AS, Volovich Y. Shear bond strength for four endodontic sealers. Endo Prac 5:9. June, 2002.

Lucena-Martín C, Ferrer-Luque CM, Gonzáles-Rodrígues MP, Robles-Gijón V, Navajas-Rodrígues de Mondelo JM. A comparative study of apical leakage of Endomethasone, Top Seal, and Roeko Seal sealer cements. J Endodon 28:423. June, 2002.  

Miletić I, Ribarić S-P, Karlović A, Jukić S, Bošnjak A, Anić I. Apical leakage of five root canal sealers after one year of storage. J Endodon 2002;28(6):431-432.

Davis MC, Walton RE, Rivera EM. Sealer distribution in coronal dentin. J Endodon 28:464. June, 2002.

Pulgar R, Segura-Egea JJ, Fernández MF, Serna A, Olea N. The effect of AH26 and AH Plus on MCF-7 breast cancer cell proliferation in vitro. Int Endo J 35:551. 2002.

Çobankara FK, Üngör M, Belli S. The effect of two different root canal sealers and smear layer on resistance to root fracture. J Endodon 2002;28(8):606-609.

Schäfer E, Zandbiglari T. A comparison of the effectiveness of chloroform and eucalyptus oil in dissolving root canal sealers. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radio Endod 2002;93:611-616.

Schäfer E & Olthoff G. Effect of three different sealers on the sealing ability of both Thermafil Obturators and cold lateral compacted gutta-percha. J Endodon 28:638. September, 2002.

Schwarze T, Leyhausen G, Geurtsen W. Long-term cytocompatibility of vriuos endodontic sealers using a new root canal model. J Endodon 28:749. November, 2002.

Schwarze T, Fielder I, Leyhausen G, Geurtssen W. The cellular compatibility of five endodontic sealers during the setting period. J Endodon 28:784. November, 2002.

Neff T, Layman D, Jeansonne BG. In vitro cytotoxicity evaluation of endodontic sealers exposed to heat before assay. J Endodon 28:811. December, 2002.   

Çobankara FK, Adanir N, Belli S, Pashley DH. A quantitative evaluation of apical leakage of four root-canal sealers. Int Endod J 2002;35:979-984.

de Oliveira Mendes S, Sobrinho APR, de Carvalho AT, de Souza Côrtes MI, Vieira LQ. In vitro evaluation of cytotoxicity of two root canal sealers on macrophage activity. J Endodon 29:95. February, 2003.

Tagger M, Tagger E, Tjan A, Bakland L. Shearing bond strength of endodontic sealers to gutta-percha. J Endodon 2003;29(3):191-193.

Pommel L, About I, Pashley D, Camps J. Apical Leakage of four endodontic sealers. J Endodon 29:208. March, 2003.

Mickel AK, Nguyen TH, Chogle S. Antimicrobial activity of endodontic sealers on enterococcus faecalis. J Endodon 2003;29(4):257-258.

Bernáth M, Szabo J. Tissue reaction initiated by different sealers. Int Endod J 2003;36:256-261.

Huumonen S, Leander-Lumikari M, Sigurdsson A, Ørstavik D. Healing of apical periodontitis after endodontic treatment: a comparison between a silicone-based and a zinc oxide-eugenol-based sealer. Int Endo J 36:296. April, 2003. Yoshimine Y, Yamamoto M, Ogasawara T, Koishi Y, Tanabe K, Hashiguchi I, Akamine A. In vitro evaluation of the cytocompatibility of a glass-ionomer cement sealer. J Endodon 29:453. July, 2003.

Ogasawara T, Yoshimine Y, Yamamoto M, Akamine A. Biocompatibility of an experimental glass-ionomer cement sealer in rat mandibular bone. OOOO&E 96:458. 2003.

Picoli F, Brugnera-Junior A, Saquy PC, Guerisoli DMZ, Pecora JD. Effect of ER:Yag laser and EDTAC on the adhesiveness to dentine of different sealers containing calcium hydroxide. Int Endo J 36:472. July, 2003.

McMichen FRS, Pearson G, Rahbaran S, Gulabivala K. A comparative study of selected physical properties of five root-canal sealers. Int Endo J 36:629. September, 2003.

Facer SR, Walton RE. Intracanal distsribution patterns of sealers after lateral condensation. J Endodon 2003;29(12):832-834.

Tagger M, Greenberg B, Sela G. Interaction between sealers and gutta-percha cones. J Endodon 2003;29(12):835-837.

Durate MAH, de O Demarchi ACC, de Moraes IG. Determination of pH and calcium ion release provided by pure and calcium hydroxide-containing AHPlus. Int Endo J 37:42. January, 2004.

Çobankara FK, Altinöz HC, Erganis O, Kav K, Belli S. In vitro antibacterial activities of root-canal sealers by using two different methods. J Endodon 30:57. January, 2004.

Hosoya N, Kurayama H, Lino F, Arai T. Effects of calcium hydroxide on physical and sealing properties of canal sealers. Int Endod J 2004;37:178-184.

Gogos C, Economides N, Stavrianos C, Kolokouris I, Kokorikos I. Adhesion of new methacrylate resin-based sealer to human dentin. J Endodon 30: 238. April, 2004.

Zmener O. Tissue response to a new methacrylate-based root canal sealer: Preliminary observations in the subcutaneous connective tissue of rats. J Endodon 30: 348. May, 2004.

Economides N, Stavrianos C, Kolokouris I, Kokorikos I, Panagiotis B, Gogos C. Comparative study of apical sealing ability of a new resin-based root canal sealer. J Endodon 30: 403. June, 2004.

Çobankara FK, Adanir N, Belli S. Evaluation of the influence of smear layer on the apical and coronal sealing ability of two sealers. J Endodon 2004;30(6):406-409.

Al-Awadhi S, Spears R, Gutman J, Opperman L. Cultured primary osteoblast viability and apoptosis in the presence of root canal sealers. J Endodon 30: 527. July, 2004.

Perassi FT, Filho IB, Villela Berbert FLC, Carlos IZ, de Toledo Leonardo R. Secretion of tumor necrosis factor-alpha by mouse peritoneal macrophages in the presence of dental sealers, Sealapex and Endomethasone. J Endodon 30: 534. July, 2004.

Weis MV, Parashos P, Messer HH. Effect of obturation technique on sealer cement thickness and dentinal tubule penetration. Int Endod J 2004;37:653-663.

Kim J-S, Baek S-H, Bae K-S. In vivo study on the biocompatibility of newly developed calcium phosphate-based root canal sealers. J Endodon 30: 708. October, 2004.

Bitter K, Paris S, Martus P, Schartner R, Kielbassa AM. A Confocal laser scanning microscope investigation of different dental adhesives bonded to root canal dentine. Int Endo J 37:840. 2004.

Dandakis C, Kaliva M, Lambrianidis T, Kosti E. An in vitro comparison of sealing ability of three endodontic sealers used in canals with iatrogenic enlargement of the apical constriction. J Endodon 31:190. March, 2005.

Eldeniz AU, Erdemir A, Belli S. Shear bond strength of three resin based sealers to dentin with and without the smerar layer. J Endodon 31:293. April, 2005.

Depraet FJHW, De Bruyne MAA, De Moor JG. The sealing ability of an epoxy resin root canal sealer after Nd:Yag laser irradiation of the root canal. Int Endo J 38:302. 2005.

Miletić I, Devčić N, Anić I, Borčić J, Karlović Z, Osmak M. The cytotoxicity of Roekoseal and AH Plus compared during different setting periods. J Endodon 31:307. April, 2005.

Kayaoglu G, Erten H, Alaçam T, Ørstavik D. Short-term antibacterial activity of root canal sealers towards Enteroccus faecalis. Int Endo J 38:483. 2005.

Huang F-M, Tsai C-H, Yang S-F, Chang Y-C. Induction of interleukin-6 and interleukin-8 gene expression by root canal sealers in human osteoblastic cells. J Endodon 31:679. September, 2005.

Orucoglu H, Sengun A, Yimaz N. Apical leakage of resin based root canal sealers with a new computerized fluidfiltration meter. J Endodon 31:886. December, 2005.

Cobankara FK, Orucoglu H, Sengun A, Belli S. The quantitiative evaluation of apical sealing of four endodontic sealers. J Endodon 32:66. January, 2006. 

Hoelscher AA, Bahcall JK, Maki JS. In vitro evaluation of the antimicrobial effects of a root canal sealer-antibiotic combination against Enterococcus faecalis. J Endodon 32:145. February, 2006.