Pediatric Endodontics

Objectives and Goals

  • be familiar with the anatomy of deciduous teeth
  • be able to compare pulpal histology of deciduous and permanent  teeth
  • know the indications/contraindications for indirect and direct pulp cap as well as pulpotomy and pulpectomy
  • be familiar with the materials and techniques used in pulpotomy and pulpectomy of deciduous teeth
  • be familiar with the differences between permanent and deciduous teeth in regards to periradicular and furcal pathology
  • be familiar with the effects of endodontically treated deciduous teeth on the permanent teeth
  • be familiar with the treatment of traumatized deciduous teeth
  • be familiar with the effects of trauma to deciduous teeth on the permanent successors

Hibbard ED, Ireland RL.  Morphology of the root canals of primary molar teeth.  J Dent Child 1957;24:250

Matsumiya S.  Experimental pathological study on the effect of treatment of infected root canals in the deciduous tooth on growth of the permanent tooth germ. Int Dent J 1968;18:546

Rolling E, Thylstrup A. A three year clinical follow up study of pulpotomized primary molars treated with the formacresol technique. Scand J Dent Res 1975;83:47

Fox AG, Heeley JD.  Histological study of human primary teeth. Arch Oral Bio 1980;25:202

Georig AC, Camp JH.  Root canal treatment in primary teeth: A review.  Pediat Dent 1983;5:33

Coll JA.  Evaluation of a one appointment formocresol pulpectomy technique for primary molars.  Pediat Dent 1983;7:123

Ranley DM.  Assessment of the systemic distribution and toxicity of formaldehyde following pulpotomy treatment. I.  J Dent Child 1985;52:431

Mulder GR, van Amerongen WE, Vingerling DA.  Consequences of endodontic treatment of primary teeth II.  A clinical investigation into the influence of formocresol pulpotomy on the permanent successor.  J Dent Child 1987;54:35

Rengelstein E, Slow WK.  The prevalence of furcation foramina in primary molars.  Pediat Dent 1989;11:198

Friedberg BH, Gartner LP.  Embryotoxicity and teratogenicity of formocresol and developing chick embryos.  J Endodon 1990;16:434

Yacobi R.  Evolving primary pulp therapy techniques.  JADA 1991;12:83

Holan G, Topf J, Fuks AB.   Effect of root canal infection and treatment of traumatized primary incisors on their permanent successors.  Endod Dent Traumatol 1992;8:12

Waterhouse PF.  Formocresol and alternative primary molar pulpotomy medicaments: a review.  Endod Dent Traumatol 1995;11:157

Coll J, Sadrian R.  Predicting pulpectomy success and its relationship to exfoliation and succedaneous dentition.  Pediat Dent 1996;18(1):57-63

Borum MK, Andreasen JO.  Sequelae of trauma to primary maxillary    incisors.  I.  Complications in the primary dentition.  Endod Dent Traumatol 1998;14:31

Eidelman E, Holan G, Fuks A.  Mineral trioxide aggregate vs. formocresol in pulpotomized primary molars: a preliminary report.  Pediatr Dent 2001;23:15-18

American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry.  Guideline on pulp therapy for primary and young permanent teeth.  Pediat Dent. Jan 2004:115-119

American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry.  Clinical management of acute dental trauma.  Pediat Dent. Jan 2004:120-127

Burns and Cohen. Pathways of the Pulp.  9th edition.  2005 pp 822-882.


Buckley JP.  Practical therapeutics.  The Dental Review 1904 Sept 1193-1197

Sweet CA.  Procedure for the treatment of exposed and pulpless deciduous teeth.  JADA 1930;17:1150

Massler M, Mansukhani H.  Effects of formocresol on the dental pulp.  J Dent Child 1959;26:277

Rabinowitch BZ.  Pulp management in primary teeth.  Oral Surg 1953 6:542

Doyle WA, McDonald RE, Mitchell DF.  Formocresol versus calcium hydroxide in pulpotomy.  J Dent Child 1962;29:86

Moss SJ, Addleston H.  Histologic study of the pulpal floor of deciduous molars.  JADA  1965;70:372

Aponte AJ, Hartsook JT, Crowley MC.  Indirect pulp capping success verified.  J Dent Child 1966;33:164

Frankel SN.  Pulp therapy in pedodontics.  Oral Surg 1972;34:293

Berk A, Krakow AA.  A comparison of the management of pulpal pathosis in deciduous and permanent teeth.  Oral Surg 1972;34:944

Longwill DJ, Marshall FJ, Creamer JR.  Reactivity of human lymphocytes to pulp antigens.  J Endod 1972;8:27

Frigoletto RT.  Pulp therapy in pedodontics.  JADA 973;86:1344

Magnuson BO.  Pulpotomy in primary molars: long term clinical and histological evaluation. Int Endod J 1980;13:143

Aylard Sr, Johnson R.  Assessment of filling techniques for primary teeth.  Pediat Dent 1987;9(3):195

Myers Dr, Battenhouse MR, Barenie JT, McKinney RV, Singh B. Histopathology of furcation lesions associated with pulp degeneration in primary molars.  Pediat Dent 1987;9(4):279

Coll JA.  An evaluation of pulpal therapy in primary incisors. Pediat Dent 1988;10(3):178

Ranley DM, Horn D.  Distribution, metabolism, and excretion of [14C] gluteraldehyde. J Endod 1990;16(3):135

Sun HW, Feigal RJ, Messer HH.  Cytotoxicity of gluteraldehyde and formaldehyde in relation to time of exposure and concentration.  Pediat Dent 1990;12(5):303

Barr ES, Flantz CM, Hicks MJ.  A retrospective radiographic evaluation of primary molar pulpectomies.  Pediat Dent 1991;13(1):4

Dandashi MB.  An in vitro comparison of three endodontic techniques for primary incisors.  Pediat Dent 1993;15(4):253

Sadrian R, Coll J.  A long-term followup on the retention rate of zinc oxide filler after primary tooth pulpectomy.  Pediat Dent 1993;5:253

Ranley DM.  Pulpotomy therapy in primary teeth: new molalities for old rationales.  Pediat Dent 1994;16(6):403

Rimondini L, Baroni C. Morphologic criteria for root canal treatment of primary molars undergoing resorption.  Endod Dent Traumatol 1995;11;136

Salako N, Joseph B, Ritwik P, Salonen J, John P, Junaid TA.  Comparison of bioactive glass, mineral trioxide aggregate, ferric sulfate and formocresol as pulpotomy agents in rat molar. Dent Traumatol 2003:19:314-320