Endodontic Obturation; Methods and Materials 2010

Objectives and Goals

  • List the criteria for the ideal obturating material
  • Describe the purpose of obturation and the mechanism for endodontic failure in cases of inadequate obturation.
  • Describe the various obturating materials and methods available to us and the advantages and disadvantages of said techniques.
  • Describe the various in-vitro methods for evaluation of obturation techniques and be able to critique said methods.
  • Discuss the clinical and radiographic criteria for evaluating the quality of obturation.

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*Luccy CT, Weller RN, Kulild JC.  An evaluation of the apical seal produced bylateral and warm lateral condensation techniques.  J Endodon 16:170-172. 1990.

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*Clark DS, ElDeeb ME.  Apical sealing ability of metal versus plastic carrier Thermafil obturators.  J Endodon 19:4-9. 1993.

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Kuhre AN, Kessler JR. Effect of moisture on the apical seal of laterallycondensed gutta-percha. J Endodon 1993;19:277-280.

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Nakata TT, Bae KS, Baumgartner JC. Perforation repair comparing Mineral Trioxide Aggregate and Amalgam using an anaerobic bacterial leakage model.J Endodon 24:184-186. 1998.

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Lussi A Imwinkelreid S, Hotz, GrosreyJ. Long term obturation quality using noninstrumentation technology. J Endodon 26:491-493. September, 2000.

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Imai Y and Komabayashi T. Properties of a new injectable type of root canal filling resin with adhesiveness to dentin. J Endodon 29:20-23. January, 2003.

Boussetta F, Bal S, Romeas A, Boivin G, Magloire H, Farge P. In vitro evaluation of apical microleakage following canal filling with coated carrier system compared with lateral and thermomechanical gutta-percha condensation techniques. Int Endo J 36:367. May, 2003.

Gençoğlu N. Comparison of 6 different gutta-percha techniques (part II): Thermafil, JS Quick-fill, Soft Core, Microsaeal, System B, and lateral condensation. OOOO&E 96:91. July, 2003.

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Guess GM, Edwards KR, Yang M, Iqbal MK, Kim S. Analysis of continuous-wave obturation using a single-cone and hybrid technique. J Endodon 29:509-12. August, 2003.

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Wu M-K, de Groot SD, van der Sluis LWM, Wesselink PR. The effect of using an inverted master cone in a lateral compaction technique on the density of the gutt-percha fill. OOOO&E 96:345. September, 2003.

Ardila CN, Wu M-K, Wesselink PR. Percentage of filled canal area in mandibular molars after conventional root-canal instrumentation and after a noninstrumentation technique (NIT). Int Endo J 36:591. September, 2003.

Schur AL, Sedgley CM Fenno JC. The antimicrobial efficacy of  "MGP" gutta-percha in vitro. Int Endo J 36:616. September, 2003.

Kardon BP, Kuttler S, Hardigan P, Dorn SO. An in vitro evaluation of the sealing ability of a new root-canal-obturation system. J Endodon 29:658-61. October, 2003.

Tani-Ishii N and Ternaka T. Clinical and radiographic evaluation of root-canal obturation with Obtura II. J Endodon 29:739-42. November, 2003.

Vizgirda PJ, Liewehr FR, Patton WR, McPherson JC, Buxton TB. A comparison of laterally condensed gutta-percha, thermoplasticized gutta-percha and mineral trioxide aggregate as root canal filling materials. J Endodon 30:103-106. February, 2004.

Valois CR, Silva LP, Azevedo RB, Costa ED. Atomic force microscopy study of gutta-percha cone topography. Oral Surg Oral Med 98:250-55. February, 2004.

Shipper G and Trope M. In vitro microbial leakage of endodontically treated teeth using new and standard obturation techniques. J Endodon 30:154-58. March, 2004.

Goldberg RA, Kuttler S, Dorn SO. The properties of Endocal 10 and its potential impact on the structural integrity of the root. J Endodon 30:159-62. March, 2004.

Robinson MJ, McDonald NJ, Mullally PJ. Apical extrusion of thermoplasticized obturating material in canals instrumented with Profile 0.06 or Profile GT. J Endodon 30:418. June, 2004.

Venturi M, Breschi L. Evaluation of apical filling after warm vertical gutta-percha compaction using different procedures. J Endodon 30:436. June, 2004.

Lipski M. Root surface temperature rises in vitro during root canal obturation with thermoplasticized gutta-percha on a carrier or by injection. J Endodon 30:441, June, 2004.

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Chu CH, Lo ECM, Cheung GSP. Outcome of root canal treatment using Thermafil and cold lateral condensation filling techniques. Int Endo J 38:179. 2005.

Villegas JC, Yoshioka T, Kobayashi C, Suda H. Quality of gutta-percha root canal fillings using differently tapered gutta-percha master points. J Endodon 31:111-13. February, 2005.

Whitworth JM and Baco L. Coronal leakage of sealer-only backfill: an in vitro evaluation. J Endodon 31:280-282. April, 2005.

Lipski M. Root surface temperature rises in vitro during root canal obturation using hybrid and Microseal techniques. J Endodon 31:297-300. April, 2005.

Zmener O, PameijerCH, Macri E. Evaluation of the apical seal in root canals prepared with a new rotary system and obturated with a methacrylate based endodontic sealer: An in vitro study. J Endodon 31:392-95. May, 2005.

Zmener O, Banegas G, Pameijer CH. Bone tissue response to a methacrylate-based endodontic sealer: a histological and histometric study. J Endodon 31:457-59. May, 2005.

Durarte MAH, de Oliveira Demarchi ACC, Yamashita JC, Kuga MC, de Campos Fraga S. Arsenic release provided by MTA and Portland Cement. OOOO&E 99:648. May, 2005.

Al-Hezaimi K, Naghshbandi J, Oglesby S, Simon JH, Rostein I. Human saliva penetration of root canals obturated with two types of mineral trioxide aggregate cements. J Endodon 31:453-56. June, 2005.

Keçeci AD, Çelik G, Şen BH. Comparison of cold lateral compaction and continuous wave of obteration techniques following manual or rotary instrumentation. Int Endo J 38:381. June, 2005.

Xavier CB, Weismann R, de Oliveira MG, Demarco FF, Pozza DH. Root-end filling materials: Apical microleakage and marginal adaptation. J Endodon 31:539-42. July, 2005.

Dulaimi SF, Wali Al-Hashimi MK. A comparison of spreader penetration depth and load required during lateral condensation in teeth prepared using various root canal preparation techniques. Int Endo J 38:510. 2005.

De Deus G,  X imenes R, Gurgel-Filho ED, Plotkowski MC, Countinho-Filho T. Cytotoxicity of MTA and Portland cement on human ECV 304 endothlial cells. Int Endo J 38:604. 2005.

van Zyl SP, Gulabivala K, Ng Y-L. Effect of customization of master gutta-percha cone on apical control of root filling using different techniques: an ex vivo study. Int  Endo J 38:658. 2005.

Hiraishi N, Papacchini F, Loushine RJ, Weller RN, Ferrari M, Pashley DH, Tay FR. Shear bond strength of Resilon to a methacrylate-based root canal sealer. Int Endo J 38:753. 2005.

Tay FR, Loushine RJ, Lambrechts P, Weller RN, Pashley, DH. Geometric factors affecting dentin bonding in root canals: a theoretical modeling approach. J Endodon 31:584-89. August, 2005.

Tay FR, Pashley DH, Williams MC, Raina R, Loushine RJ, Weller RN, Kimbrough F, King NM. Susceptabilty of a polcaprolactone-based root canal filling material to degradation . I. Alkaline Hydrolysis. J Endodon 31:593-98. August, 2005.

Williamson AE, Dawson DV, Drake DR, Walton RE, Rivera EM. Effect of root canal filling/sealer systems on apical endotoxin penetration: A coronal leakage Evaluation. J Endodon 31:599. August, 2005.

Tay FR, Loushine RJ, Monticelli F, Weller RN, Breschi L, Ferrari M, Pashley DH. Effectiveness of resin-coated gutta-percha cones and a dual-cured, hydrophilic methacrylate resin-based sealer in obturating root canals. J Endodon 31:659. September, 2005.

ElAyouti A, Achleitner C, Löst C, Weiger R. Homogeneity and adaptation of new gutta-percha paste to root canal walls. J Endodon 31:687. September,2005.

de Almeida Gomes BD, Vianna ME, Matsumoto CU, de Paula e Silva Rossi V, Zaia AA, Ferraz CCR, de Souza Filho J. Disinfection of gutta-percha cones with chlorhexidine and sodium hypochlorite, OOOO&E 100:512. October, 2005.

Gest A, Raffaelli O, Goracci C, Pashley DH, Tay FR, Ferrari M. Interfacial strength of resilon and gutta-percha to intraradicular dentin. 3d1:809. November, 2005.

Chogle S, Mickel AK, Huffaker SK, Neibaur B. An in vitro assessment of iofoform gutta-percha. J Endodon 31:814. November, 2005.

Venturi M, Di Lenarda R, Prati C, Breschi L. An in vitro model to investigate filling of lateral canals. J Endodon 31:877. December, 2005.

Nielsen BA, Baumgartner JC. Spreader penetration during lateral compaction of  Resilon and gutta-percha. J Endodon 32:52. January, 2006.

Diemer F, Sinan A, Calas P. Penetration depth of warm vertical gutta-percha pluggers: Impact of apical preparation. J Endodon 32:123. February, 2006.

Melker KB, Vertucci FJ, Rojas MF, Progulske-Fox A, Bélanger M. Antimicrobial efficacy of medicated root canal filling materials. J Endodon 32:148. February, 2006.

Jenkins S, Kulild J, Williams K, Lyons W, Lee C. Sealing ability of three materials in the orifice of root canal systems obturated with gutta-percha. J Endodon 32:225. March, 2006.

Stuart CH, Schwartz SA, Beeson TJ. Reinforcement of immature roots with a new resin filling material. J Endodon 32:350. April, 2006.

Hiraishi N, Loushine RJ, Vano M, Chieffi N, Weller RN, Ferrari M, Pashley DH, Tay FR. Is an oxygen inhibated layer required for bonding of resin-coated gutta-percha to a methacrylate-based root canal sealer? J Endodon 32:429. May, 2006.

Lipski M. In vitro infrared thermographic assessment of root surface temperatures generated by high-temperature thermoplasticized injectable gutta-percha obturation technique. J Endodon 32:438. May, 2006.

Yamauchi S, Shipper G, Buttke T, Yamauchi M, Trope M. Effect of orifice plugs on periapical inflammation in dogs. J Endodon 32:524. June, 2006.

Epley SR, Fleischman J, Hartwell G, Cicalese C. Completeness of root canal obturations: Epiphany techniques versus gutta-percha techniques. J Endodon 32:541. June, 2006.

Williams C, Loushine RJ, Weller RN, Pashley DH, Tay FR. A comparison of cohesive strength and stiffness of Resilon and gutta-percha. J Endodon 32:553. June, 2006.

Karagenç B, Gençoğlu N, Ersoy M, Cansever G, Külekçi G. A comparison of four different microleakage tests for assessment of leakage of root canal fillings. OOOO&E 102:110. July, 2006.

Sabeti MA, Nekofar M, Motahhary P, Ghandi M, Simon JH. Healin of apical periodontitis after endodontic treatment with and without obturation in dogs. J Endodon 32:628. July, 2006.

Stratton RK, Apicella MJ, Mines P. A fluid filtration cmparison of gutta-percha versus Resilon, a new soft resin endodontic obturation system. J Endodon 32:642. July, 2006.

Miner MR, Berzins DW, Bahcall JK. A comparison of thermal properties between gutt-percha and a synthetic polymer based root canal filling material (Resilon). J Endodon 32:683. July, 2006.

Biggs SG, Knowles KI, Ibarrola JL, Pahley DH. An in vitro assessment of the sealing ability of Resilon/Epiphany using fluid filtration. J Endodon 32:759. August, 2006.

Collins J, Walker MP, Kulild J, Lee C. A comparison of three gutta-percha obturation techniques to replicate canal irregularities. J Endodon 32:762. August, 2006.

George SW, Pichardo MR, Bergeron BE, Jeansonne BG. The effect of formalin storage on the apical microleakage of obturated canals. J Endodon 32:869. September, 2006.

Tunga U, Bodrumlu E. Assessment of the sealing ability of a new root canal obturation material. J Endodon 32:876. September, 2006.

Pitout E, Oberholzer TG, Blignaut E, Molepo J. Coronal leakage of teeth root-filled with gutta-percha or Resilon root canal filling material. J Endodon 32:879. September, 2006.

Skidmore LJ, Berzins DW, Bahcall JK. An in vitro comparison of the intraradicular dentin bond strength of Resilon and gutta-percha. J Endodon 32:963. October, 2006.

Onay EO, Ungor M, Orucoglu H. An in vitro evaluation of the apical sealing ability of a new resin-based root canal oturation system. J Endodon 32:976. October, 2006.

Cunningham KP, Walker MP, Kulild JC, Lask JT. Variability of the diameter and taper of size #30 , 0.04 gutta-percha cones. J Endodon 32:1081. November, 2006.

Özalp N, Ökte Z, Özcelik B. The rapid sterilization of gutta-percha cones with sodium hypochlorite and glutaraldehyde. J Endodon 32:1202. December, 2006.

Merdad K, Pascon AE, Kulkarni G, Santerre P, Friedman S. Short-term cytotoxicity assessment of components of the epiphany resin-percha obturation system by indirect and direct contact millipore filter assays. J  Endod. 2007;33(1):24-7.

Royal MJ, Williamson AE, Drake DR. Comparison of 5.25% sodium hypochlorite, MTAD, 2% chlorhexidine in rapid disinfection of polycaprolactone-based root canal filling material. J Endodon 33:42. January, 2007.

Baumgartner G, Zehnder M, Paqué F. Enterococcus faecalis type strain leakage through root canals filled with gutta-percha/AH Plus or Resilon/Epiphany. J Endodon 33:45. January, 2007.

Shahravan A, Haghdoost A, Adl A, Rahimi H, Shadifar F. Effect of smear layer on sealing ability of canal obturation: a systemic review and meta-analysis. J Endodon 33:96. February, 2007.

Peng L, Ye L, Tan H, Zhou X. Outcome of root canal obturation by warm gutta-percha versus cold lateral condensation: a meta-analysis. J Endodon 33:106. February, 2007.

Yelton C, Walker MP, Lee C, Dryden JA, Kulild JC. Assessment of a thermoplasticized gutta-percha delivery system to effectively obdurate canals with varying preperation dimensions. J Endodon 33:156. February, 2007.

Sly MM, Moore BK, Platt JA, Brown CE. Push-out bond strength of a new endodontic oturation system (Resilon/Epiphany). J Endodon 33:160. February, 2007.

Tanomaru-Filho M, Jorge EG, Tanomaru JMG, Gonçalves M. Radiopacity evaluation of new root canal filling materials by digitalization of images. J  Endod. 2007;33(3):249-51.

Perdigão J, Lopes MM, Gomes G. Interfacial adaptation of adhesive materials to root canal dentin. J  Endod. 2007;33(3):259-63.

Veríssimo DM, do Vale MS, Monteiro AJ. Comparison of apical leakage between canals filled with gutta-percha/AH-Plus and the Resilon/Epiphany system, when submitted to two filling techniques. J  Endod. 2007;33(3):291-4.

Monticelli F, Sadek FT, Schuster GS, Volkmann KR, Looney SW, Ferrari M, Toledano M, Pashley DH, Tay FR. Efficacy of two contemporary single-cone filling techniques in preventing bacterial leakage. J Endodon 33:310. March 2007.

Tay FR, Pashley DH. Monoblocks in root canals: a hypothetical or a tangible goal. J Endodon 33:391. April, 2007.

Hörsted-Bindslev P, Andersen MA, Jensen MF, Nilsson JH, Wenzel A. Quality of molar root canal fillings performed with the lateral compaction and the single-cone technique. J  Endod. 2007;33(4):468-71.

Mente J, Werner S, Koch MJ, Henschel V, Legner M, Staehle HJ, Friedman S. In vitro leakage associated with three root filling techniques in large and extremely large root canals. J Endodon 33:306. May, 2007.  

Pang N, Jung I, Bae K, Baek S, Lee W, Kum K. Effects of short-term chemical disinfection of  gutta-percha cones: identifi