Endodontic Immunology 2011

Objectives and Goals

  • Describe the cells in the pulp and periapex involved in immunological reactions
  • Understand the significance of immunological reactions and infections of endodontic origin.
  • Describe immunological reactions that are protective and reactions that are pathogenic.

1.      Bergenholtz G, Ahlstedt S, Lindhe J.  Experimental pulpitis in immunized monkeys.  Scand J Dent Res.  1977;85:396-406.           

2.      Pulver W, Taubman MA, Smith DJ.  Immune components in human dental periapical lesions.  Arch Oral Bio1 1978;23:435-43.          

3.      Stern MH, Dreizen S, Mackler BF, Selbst AG, Levy BM. Quantitative analysis of cellular composition of human periapical granuloma. J Endod 1981;7:117-122.

4.      Dahlen G, Fabricius L, Holm SE, Moller AJR.  Circulating antibodies after experimental chronic infection in the root canal of teeth in monkeys.  Scand J Dent Res 1982;90:338-44.

5.      Torabinejad M, Kettering JD. Identification and relative concentration of B and T lymphocytes in human chronic periapical lesions. J Endodon 1985;11:122-125.

6.      Jontell M, Gunraj MN, Bergenholtz G. Immunocompetent cells in the normal dental pulp. J Dent Res 1987;66:1149-1153.

7.      Barkhordar R, Desouza Y.  Human T-lymphocyte subpopulations in periapical lesions.  Oral Surg 1988;65:763-6.

8.      Hahn CL, Falkler WA Jr., Siegel MA. A study of T and B cells in pulpal pathosis. J Endodon 1989;15:20-6.

9.      Baumgartner, J.C. and Falkler, W.A.  Reactivity of IgG from explant cultures of periapical lesions with implicated microorganisms.  J Endod 1991;17:207-12.

10.  Safavi KE, Rossomando EF. Tumor necrosis factor identified in periapical tissue exudates of teeth with apical periodontitis. J Endod 1991;17:12-4.

11.  Fouad A. IL-1a and TNF-a expression in early periapical lesions of normal and immunodeficient mice. J Dent Res 1997;76:1548-54.

12.  de Sá AR, Pimenta FJGS, Dutra WO, Gomez RS. Immunolocalization of interleukin 4, interleukin 6, and lymphotoxin in dental granulomas. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2003;96:356-360.

13.  Bowles WR, Withrow JC, Lepinski AM, Hargreaves KM. Tissue levels of immunoreactive substance P are increased in patients with irreversible pulpitis. J Endod 2003;29:265-7.

14.  Tuncer LI, Alacam T, Oral B. Substance P expression is elevated in inflamed human periradicular tissue. J Endod 2004;30:329-332.

15.  Ledesma-Montes C, Garcés-Ortiz M, Rosales-García G, Hernández-Guerrero JC. Importance of mast cells in human periapical inflammatory lesions. J Endod 2004;30:855-9.

16.  Tokuda M, Miyamoto R, Nagaoka S, Torii M. Substance P enhances expression of lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory factors in dental pulp cells. J Endod 2004;30:770-4.

17.  Mutoh N, Tani-Ishii T, Tsukinoki K, Chieda K, Watanabe K. Expression of toll-like receptor 2 and 4 in dental pulp. J Endod 2007;33:1183-6.

18.  Colić M, Gazivoda D, Vucević D, Majstorović I, Vasilijić S, Rudolf R, Brkić Z, Milosavljević P. Regulatory T-cells in periapical lesions. J Dent Res 2009;88:997-1002.

19.  Hahn CL, Liewehr FR. Update on the adaptive immune responses of the dental pulp. J Endod. 2007 Jul;33(7):773-81.

20.  Hahn CL, Liewehr FR. Innate immune responses of the dental pulp to caries. J Endod 2007 Jun;33(6):643-51.

21.  Staquet MJ, Durand SH, Colomb E, Roméas A, Vincent C, Bleicher F, Lebecque S, Farges JC. Different roles of odontoblasts and fibroblasts in immunity. J Dent Res. 2008 Mar;87(3):256-61.

22.  Lee Y-Y, Hung S-L, Pai S-F, Lee Y-H, Yang S-F. Eugenol suppressed the expression of lipopolysaccharide-induced proinflammatory mediators in human macrophanges. J Endod 2007;33:698-702.

23.  Khan AA, Sun X, Hargreaves KM. Effect of calcium hydroxide on proinflammatory cytokines and neuropeptides. J Endod. 2008 Nov;34(11):1360-3.

24.  Kleier DJ, Shibilski K. Management of the latex hypersensitive patient in the endodontic office. J Endod. 1999 Dec;25(12):825-8.