Pulpal and Periapical Disease 2011

Objectives and Goals

  • Describe the cells in the pulp and the periapex involved in specific immunological reactions and nonspecific inflammatory reactions
  • Understand the significance of these reactions in pulpal and periapical disease
  • Describe the reactions that are protective and the reactions that are pathogenic

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2.      Schoenfeld SE, Greening AB, Glick DH, Frank AL, Simon JH, Herles SM. Endotoxic activity in periapical lesions. Oral Surg 1982;53:82-7.

3.      Baumgartner  JC, Picket AB, Muller, JT. Microscopic examination of oral sinus tracts and their associated periapical lesions. J Endod 1984;10:146-9.

4.      Contos JG, Corcoran JF, Jr., LaTurno SAL, Chiego DJ, Regezi JA. Langerhans cells in apical periodontal cysts:  an immunohistochemical study. J Endod 1987;13(2):52-5.

5.      Horiba N, Maekawa Y, Abe Y, Ito M, Matsumoto T, Nakamura H. Correlations between endotoxin and clinical symptoms or radiolucent areas in infected root canals. Oral Surg 1991;71:492-5.

6.      Eftimiadi C, Stashenko P, Tonetti M, Mangiante PE, Massara R, Zupo S, et al. Divergent effect of the anaerobic bacteria by-product butyric acid on the immune response:  suppression of T-lymphocyte proliferation and stimulation of interleukin-1 beta production. Oral Microbiol Immunol. 1991;6:17-23.

7.      Kawashima N, Okiji T, Kosaka T, Suda H. Kinetics of macrophages and lymphoid cells during the development of experimentally induced periapical lesions in rat molars: a quantitative immunohistochemical study. J Endod 1996;22(6):311-6.

8.      Metzger Z, Berg D, Dotan M. Fibroblast growth in vitro suppressed by LPS-activated macrophages.  Reversal of suppression by hydrocortisone. J Endod 1997;23(8):517-21.

9.      Tyler LW, Matossian K, Todd R, Gallagher G, White R, Wong DTW. Eosinophil-derived transforming growth factors (TGF-(alpha) and TGF-(beta)1) in human periradicular lesions. J Endod. 1999;25(9):619-24.

10.  Nair PNR, Sjogren U, Figdor D, Sundqvist G. Persistent periapical radiolucencies of root-filled human teeth, failed endodontic treatments, and periapical scars. Oral Surg. 1999;87:617-27.

11.  Danin J, Linder LE, Lundqvist G, Andersson L. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha and transforming growth factor-beta1 in chronic periapical lesions. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2000;90:514-7.

12.  Huang GT-J, Do M, Wingard M, Park JS, Chugal N. Effect of interleukin-6 deficiency on the formation of periapical lesions after pulp exposure in mice. Oral Surg. 2001;92(1):83-8.

13.  Leonardi R, Caltabiano M, Pagano M, Pezzuto V, Loreto C, Palestro G. Detection of vascular endothelial growth factor/vascular permeability factor in periapical lesions. J Endod. 2003;29(3):180-3.

14.  Tuncer LI, Alacam T, Oral B. Substance P expression is elevated in inflamed human periradicular tissue. J Endod. 2004;30(5):329-32.

15.  Barthel CR, Zimmer S, Trope M. Relationship of radiologic and histologic signs of inflammation in human root-filled teeth. J Endod. 2004;30(2):75-9.

16.  Piatelli A, Rubini C, Fioroni M, Favero L. Expression of transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) in odontogenic cysts. Int Endod J. 2004;37:7-11.

17.  Zhang X, Peng B. Immunolocalization of receptor activator of NF Kappa B Ligand in rat periapical lesions. J Endod. 2005;31(8):574-7.

18.  Leonardi R, Caltabiano R, Loreto C. Collagenase-3 (MMP-13) is expressed in periapical lesions: an immunohistochemical study. Int Endod J. 2005;38:297-301.

19.  Ricucci D, Pascon EA, Ford TRP, Langeland K. Epithelium and bacteria in periapical lesions. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2006;101(2):239-49.

20.  Lin LM, Huang GT-J, Rosenberg PA. Proliferation of epithelial cell rests, formation of apical cysts, and regression of apical cysts after periapical wound healing. J Endod 2007;33:908-16.

21.  de Paula-Silva FW, D'Silva NJ, da Silva LA, Kapila YL. High matrix metalloproteinase activity is a hallmark of periapical granulomas. J Endod. 2009;35(9):1234-42.

22.  Alshwaimi E, Purcell P, Kawai T, Sasaki H, Oukka M, Campos-Neto A, Stashenko P. Regulatory T cells in mouse periapical lesions. J Endod. 2009;35(9):1229-33.

Kishen A. Periapical biomechanics and the role of cyclic biting force in apical retrograde fluid movement. Int Endod J. 2005 Sep;38(9):597-603.