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The archives for these listservs are very good resources for frequently asked questions.

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Useful Reference Material

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Byers,S.L., Payson,S.J., and Taft,R.A. (2006). Performance of ten inbred mouse strains following assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs). Theriogenology 65, 1716-1726.  

Capecchi MR  (2005) Gene targeting in mice: Functional analysis of the mammalian genome for the twenty-first century. Nat Rev Genet 6:507–512.  

Critser,J.K. and Mobraaten,L.E. (2000). Cryopreservation of murine spermatozoa. ILAR. J. 41, 197-206.  

Fedorov,L.M., Haegel-Kronenberger,H., and Hirchenhain,J. (1997). A comparison of the germline potential of differently aged ES cell lines and their transfected descendants. Transgenic Res. 6, 223-231.  

Fedorov,L.M., Tyrsin,O.Y., Krenn,V., Chernigovskaya,E.V., and Rapp,U.R. (2001). Tet-system for the regulation of gene expression during embryonic development. Transgenic Res. 10, 247-258.  

Freundlieb,S., Baron,U., Bonin,A.L., Gossen,M., and Bujard,H. (1997). Use of tetracycline-controlled gene expression systems to study mammalian cell cycle. Methods Enzymol. 283, 159-173.  

Fray MD, Pickard AR, Harrison M, Cheeseman MT. (2008) Upgrading mouse health and welfare: direct benefits of a large-scale rederivation program. Lab Anim. 42:127-39.  

Giraldo,P. and Montoliu,L. (2001). Size matters: use of YACs, BACs and PACs in transgenic animals. Transgenic Res. 10, 83-103.

Gondo,Y. (2008). Trends in large-scale mouse mutagenesis: from genetics to functional genomics. Nat. Rev. Genet. 9, 803-810.  

Gordon,J.W., Scangos,G.A., Plotkin,D.J., Barbosa,J.A., and Ruddle,F.H. (1980). Genetic transformation of mouse embryos by microinjection of purified DNA. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 77, 7380-7384.  

Jaenisch,R. and Mintz,B. (1974). Simian virus 40 DNA sequences in DNA of healthy  adult mice derived from preimplantation blastocysts injected with viral DNA. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 71, 1250-1254.

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Longo L, Bygrave A, Grosveld FG, Pandolfi PP. (1997) The chromosome make-up of mouse embryonic stem cells is predictive of somatic and germ cell chimaerism. Transgenic Res. 6 :321-8.  

Mahabir E, Bulian D, Needham J, Schmidt J. (2009)  Lack of transmission of mouse minute virus (MMV) from in vitro-produced embryos to recipients and pups due to the presence of cumulus cells during the in vitro fertilization process. Biol Reprod. 81:531-8.  

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Oakley,D.J., Iyer,V., Skarnes,W.C., and Smedley,D. (2011). BioMart as an integration solution for the International Knockout Mouse Consortium. Database. (Oxford), bar028.  

Palmiter,R.D. and Brinster,R.L. (1985). Transgenic mice. Cell 41, 343-345.   Porteus MH, Carroll D (2005) Gene targeting using zinc finger nucleases. Nat Biotechnol 23:967–973.  

Prosser,H.M., Koike-Yusa,H., Cooper,J.D., Law,F.C., and Bradley,A. (2011). A resource of vectors and ES cells for targeted deletion of microRNAs in mice. Nat. Biotechnol. 29, 840-845.  

Ringwald,M., Iyer,V., Mason,J.C., Stone,K.R., Tadepally,H.D., Kadin,J.A., Bult,C.J., Eppig,J.T., Oakley,D.J., Briois,S. et al. (2011). The IKMC web portal: a central point of entry to data and resources from the International Knockout Mouse Consortium. Nucleic Acids Res. 39, D849-D855.  

Schonig,K., Schwenk,F., Rajewsky,K., and Bujard,H. (2002). Stringent doxycycline dependent control of CRE recombinase in vivo. Nucleic Acids Res. 30, e134.  

Schoonjans,L., Kreemers,V., Danloy,S., Moreadith,R.W., Laroche,Y., and Collen,D. (2003). Improved generation of germline-competent embryonic stem cell lines from inbred mouse strains. Stem Cells 21, 90-97.

Srinivas,S., Watanabe,T., Lin,C.S., William,C.M., Tanabe,Y., Jessell,T.M., and Costantini,F. (2001). Cre reporter strains produced by targeted insertion of EYFP and ECFP into the ROSA26 locus. BMC. Dev. Biol. 1, 4.  

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Takahashi,H. and Liu,C. (2010). Archiving and distributing mouse lines by sperm cryopreservation, IVF, and embryo transfer. Methods Enzymol. 476, 53-69.  

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Van Keuren,M.L., Gavrilina,G.B., Filipiak,W.E., Zeidler,M.G., and Saunders,T.L. (2009). Generating transgenic mice from bacterial artificial chromosomes: transgenesis efficiency, integration and expression outcomes. Transgenic Res. 18, 769-785.  

Van Keuren ML, Saunders TL. (2004) Rederivation of transgenic and gene-targeted mice by embryo transfer. Transgenic Res. Aug;13(4):363-71.  

Vergara,G.J., Irwin,M.H., Moffatt,R.J., and Pinkert,C.A. (1997). In vitro fertilization in mice: Strain differences in response to superovulation protocols and effect of cumulus cell removal. Theriogenology 47, 1245-1252.  

Wakayama,T. and Yanagimachi,R. (1998). Development of normal mice from oocytes injected with freeze-dried spermatozoa. Nat. Biotechnol. 16, 639-641.  

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Advanced Protocols for Animal Transgenesis, ed S Pease and T.L.Saunders. Springer; ISTT, 2011.

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Transgenic Animal Technology: A Laboratory Handbook. 2nd Edition. Pinkert, CA. 2002. Academic Press, New York.

List of Customers' Publications

(under construction)    



Milner LC, Shirley RL, Komiyama NH, Grant SGN, and Buck KJ. Novel transgenic and knockout models confirm Mpdz's role in alcohol withdrawal (in preparation).


Tian,Q., Hanlon Newell,A.E., Wang,Y., Olson,S.B., and Fedorov,L.M. (2011). Complex cytogenetic analysis of early lethality mouse embryos. Chromosome. Res. 19, 567-574.

Wang,X., Cunningham,M., Zhang,X., Tokarz,S., Laraway,B., Troxell,M., and Sears,R.C. (2011). Phosphorylation regulates c-Myc's oncogenic activity in the mammary gland. Cancer Res. 71, 925-936.

Xie L., C. Pelz, W. Wang, A. Bashar, O. Varlamova, S. Shadle, and S. Impey. KDM5B regulates embryonic stem cell self-renewal and represses cryptic intragenic transcription. EMBO J. 30 (8):1473-1484, 2011.

Zhang,X., Farrell,A.S., Daniel,C.J., Arnold,H., Scanlan,C., Laraway,B.J., Janghorban,M., Lum,L., Chen,D., Troxell,M. et al. (2011). Mechanistic insight into Myc stabilization in breast cancer involving aberrant Axin1 expression. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A.


Ashton,G.H., Morton,J.P., Myant,K., Phesse,T.J., Ridgway,R.A., Marsh,V., Wilkins,J.A., Athineos,D., Muncan,V., Kemp,R. et al. (2010). Focal adhesion kinase is required for intestinal regeneration and tumorigenesis downstream of Wnt/c-Myc signaling. Dev. Cell 19, 259-269.

Duncan,A.W., Taylor,M.H., Hickey,R.D., Hanlon Newell,A.E., Lenzi,M.L., Olson,S.B., Finegold,M.J., and Grompe,M. (2010). The ploidy conveyor of mature hepatocytes as a source of genetic variation. Nature 467, 707-710.

Erker,L., Azuma,H., Lee,A.Y., Guo,C., Orloff,S., Eaton,L., Benedetti,E., Jensen,B., Finegold,M., Willenbring,H. et al. (2010). Therapeutic liver reconstitution with murine cells isolated long after death. Gastroenterology 139, 1019-1029.

Park,J.W., Pitot,H.C., Strati,K., Spardy,N., Duensing,S., Grompe,M., and Lambert,P.F. (2010). Deficiencies in the Fanconi anemia DNA damage response pathway increase sensitivity to HPV-associated head and neck cancer. Cancer Res. 70, 9959-9968.

Paulk,N.K., Wursthorn,K., Wang,Z., Finegold,M.J., Kay,M.A., and Grompe,M. (2010). Adeno-associated virus gene repair corrects a mouse model of hereditary tyrosinemia in vivo. Hepatology 51, 1200-1208.

Zhang,Q.S., Marquez-Loza,L., Eaton,L., Duncan,A.W., Goldman,D.C., Anur,P., Watanabe-Smith,K., Rathbun,R.K., Fleming,W.H., Bagby,G.C. et al. (2010). Fancd2-/- mice have hematopoietic defects that can be partially corrected by resveratrol. Blood 116, 5140-5148.


Dissen,G.A., Garcia-Rudaz,C., Paredes,A., Mayer,C., Mayerhofer,A., and Ojeda,S.R. (2009). Excessive ovarian production of nerve growth factor facilitates development of cystic ovarian morphology in mice and is a feature of polycystic ovarian syndrome in humans. Endocrinology 150, 2906-2914.

Goldman,D.C., Donley,N., and Christian,J.L. (2009). Genetic interaction between Bmp2 and Bmp4 reveals shared functions during multiple aspects of mouse organogenesis. Mech. Dev. 126, 117-127.

Goldman,D.C., Bailey,A.S., Pfaffle,D.L., Al,M.A., Christian,J.L., and Fleming,W.H. (2009). BMP4 regulates the hematopoietic stem cell niche. Blood 114, 4393-4401.

Kampa,K.M., Acoba,J.D., Chen,D., Gay,J., Lee,H., Beemer,K., Padiernos,E., Boonmark,N., Zhu,Z., Fan,A.C. et al. (2009). Apoptosis-stimulating protein of p53 (ASPP2) heterozygous mice are tumor-prone and have attenuated cellular damage-response thresholds. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 106, 4390-4395.

Matejuk,A., Beardall,M., Xu,Y., Tian,Q., Phillips,D., Alabyev,B., Mannoor,K., and Chen,C. (2009). Exclusion of natural autoantibody-producing B cells from IgG memory B cell compartment during T cell-dependent immune responses. J. Immunol. 182, 7634-7643.

Sharpe,A.L. and Low,M.J. (2009). Proopiomelanocortin peptides are not essential for development of ethanol-induced behavioral sensitization. Alcohol Clin. Exp. Res. 33, 1202-1207.

van,d., V, Eaton,L., Hanlon,N.A., Al-Dhalimy,M., Liskay,R.M., Olson,S.B., and Grompe,M. (2009). Embryonic lethality after combined inactivation of Fancd2 and Mlh1 in mice. Cancer Res. 69, 9431-9438.


Arttamangkul,S., Quillinan,N., Low,M.J., von,Z.M., Pintar,J., and Williams,J.T. (2008). Differential activation and trafficking of micro-opioid receptors in brain slices. Mol. Pharmacol. 74, 972-979.

Skinner,A.M., O'Neill,S.L., Grompe,M., and Kurre,P. (2008). CXCR4 induction in hematopoietic progenitor cells from Fanca(-/-), -c(-/-), and -d2(-/-) mice. Exp. Hematol. 36, 273-282.

Tolle,V. and Low,M.J. (2008). In vivo evidence for inverse agonism of Agouti-related peptide in the central nervous system of proopiomelanocortin-deficient mice.Diabetes 57, 86-94.

Willenbring,H., Sharma,A.D., Vogel,A., Lee,A.Y., Rothfuss,A., Wang,Z., Finegold,M., and Grompe,M. (2008). Loss of p21 permits carcinogenesis from chronically damaged liver and kidney epithelial cells despite unchecked apoptosis. Cancer Cell 14, 59-67.

Wiren,K.M., Semirale,A.A., Zhang,X.W., Woo,A., Tommasini,S.M., Price,C., Schaffler,M.B., and Jepsen,K.J. (2008). Targeting of androgen receptor in bone reveals a lack of androgen anabolic action and inhibition of osteogenesis: a model for compartment-specific androgen action in the skeleton. Bone 43, 440-451.

Zhang,Q.S., Eaton,L., Snyder,E.R., Houghtaling,S., Mitchell,J.B., Finegold,M., Van,W.C., and Grompe,M. (2008). Tempol protects against oxidative damage and delays epithelial tumor onset in Fanconi anemia mice. Cancer Res. 68, 1601-1608.


Azuma,H., Paulk,N., Ranade,A., Dorrell,C., Al-Dhalimy,M., Ellis,E., Strom,S., Kay,M.A., Finegold,M., and Grompe,M. (2007). Robust expansion of human hepatocytes in Fah-/-/Rag2-/-/Il2rg-/- mice. Nat. Biotechnol. 25, 903-910.

Bornstein,S., Hoot,K., Han,G.W., Lu,S.L., and Wang,X.J. (2007). Distinct roles of individual Smads in skin carcinogenesis. Mol. Carcinog. 46, 660-664.

Bumaschny,V.F., de Souza,F.S., Lopez Leal,R.A., Santangelo,A.M., Baetscher,M., Levi,D.H., Low,M.J., and Rubinstein,M. (2007). Transcriptional regulation of pituitary POMC is conserved at the vertebrate extremes despite great promoter sequence divergence. Mol. Endocrinol. 21, 2738-2749.

Dennler,S., Andre,J., Alexaki,I., Li,A., Magnaldo,T., Ten,D.P., Wang,X.J., Verrecchia,F., and Mauviel,A. (2007). Induction of sonic hedgehog mediators by transforming growth factor-beta: Smad3-dependent activation of Gli2 and Gli1 expression in vitro and in vivo. Cancer Res. 67, 6981-6986.

Hayward,M.D. and Low,M.J. (2007). The contribution of endogenous opioids to food reward is dependent on sex and background strain. Neuroscience 144, 17-25.

Hong,S., Lim,S., Li,A.G., Lee,C., Lee,Y.S., Lee,E.K., Park,S.H., Wang,X.J., and Kim,S.J. (2007). Smad7 binds to the adaptors TAB2 and TAB3 to block recruitment of the kinase TAK1 to the adaptor TRAF2. Nat. Immunol. 8, 504-513.

Liu,H.Y., Zheng,G., Zhu,H., and Woldegiorgis,G. (2007). Hormonal and nutritional regulation of muscle carnitine palmitoyltransferase I gene expression in vivo. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 465, 437-442.

Obara,Y., Horgan,A.M., and Stork,P.J. (2007). The requirement of Ras and Rap1 for the activation of ERKs by cAMP, PACAP, and KCl in cerebellar granule cells.J. Neurochem. 101, 470-482.

Smart,J.L., Tolle,V., Otero-Corchon,V., and Low,M.J. (2007). Central dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in neuron-specific proopiomelanocortin-deficient mice. Endocrinology 148, 647-659.


Bek,M.J., Wang,X., Asico,L.D., Jones,J.E., Zheng,S., Li,X., Eisner,G.M., Grandy,D.K., Carey,R.M., Soares-da-Silva,P. et al. (2006). Angiotensin-II type 1 receptor-mediated hypertension in D4 dopamine receptor-deficient mice. Hypertension 47, 288-295.

Chen,C., Li,H., Tian,Q., Beardall,M., Xu,Y., Casanova,N., and Weigert,M. (2006). Selection of anti-double-stranded DNA B cells in autoimmune MRL-lpr/lpr mice. J. Immunol. 176, 5183-5190.

Coste,S.C., Heard,A.D., Phillips,T.J., and Stenzel-Poore,M.P. (2006). Corticotropin-releasing factor receptor type 2-deficient mice display impaired coping behaviors during stress. Genes Brain Behav. 5, 131-138.

Ellacott,K.L., Halatchev,I.G., and Cone,R.D. (2006). Characterization of leptin-responsive neurons in the caudal brainstem. Endocrinology 147, 3190-3195.

Garcia-Tornadu,I., Rubinstein,M., Gaylinn,B.D., Hill,D., Arany,E., Low,M.J., az-Torga,G., and Becu-Villalobos,D. (2006). GH in the dwarf dopaminergic D2 receptor knockout mouse: somatotrope population, GH release, and responsiveness to GH-releasing factors and somatostatin. J. Endocrinol. 190, 611-619.

Goldman,D.C., Hackenmiller,R., Nakayama,T., Sopory,S., Wong,C., Kulessa,H., and Christian,J.L. (2006). Mutation of an upstream cleavage site in the BMP4 prodomain leads to tissue-specific loss of activity.Development 133, 1933-1942.

Han,G., Li,A.G., Liang,Y.Y., Owens,P., He,W., Lu,S., Yoshimatsu,Y., Wang,D., Ten,D.P., Lin,X. et al. (2006). Smad7-induced beta-catenin degradation alters epidermal appendage development. Dev. Cell 11, 301-312.

Jansen,E.E., Verhoeven,N.M., Jakobs,C., Schulze,A., Senephansiri,H., Gupta,M., Snead,O.C., and Gibson,K.M. (2006). Increased guanidino species in murine and human succinate semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH) deficiency. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1762, 494-498.

Job,M.O., Ramachandra,V., Anders,S., Low,M.J., and Gonzales,R.A. (2006). Reduced basal and ethanol stimulation of striatal extracellular dopamine concentrations in dopamine D2 receptor knockout mice. Synapse 60, 158-164.

Kruzich,P.J., Mitchell,S.H., Younkin,A., and Grandy,D.K. (2006). Dopamine D2 receptors mediate reversal learning in male C57BL/6J mice. Cogn Affect. Behav. Neurosci. 6, 86-90.

Kumar,T.R., Schuff,K.G., Nusser,K.D., and Low,M.J. (2006). Gonadotroph-specific expression of the human follicle stimulating hormone beta gene in transgenic mice. Mol. Cell Endocrinol. 247, 103-115.

Lu,S.L., Herrington,H., Reh,D., Weber,S., Bornstein,S., Wang,D., Li,A.G., Tang,C.F., Siddiqui,Y., Nord,J. et al. (2006). Loss of transforming growth factor-beta type II receptor promotes metastatic head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma. Genes Dev. 20, 1331-1342.

Lu,S.L., Herrington,H., and Wang,X.J. (2006). Mouse models for human head and neck squamous cell carcinomas. Head Neck 28, 945-954.

Mastrodimou,N., Vasilaki,A., Papadioti,A., Low,M.J., Hoyer,D., and Thermos,K. (2006). Somatostatin receptors in wildtype and somatostatin deficient mice and their involvement in nitric oxide physiology in the retina. Neuropeptides 40, 365-373.

Mehta,A.K., Gould,G.G., Gupta,M., Carter,L.P., Gibson,K.M., and Ticku,M.K. (2006). Succinate semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency does not down-regulate gamma-hydroxybutyric acid binding sites in the mouse brain. Mol. Genet. Metab 88, 86-89.

Morgan,C. and Cone,R.D. (2006). Melanocortin-5 receptor deficiency in mice blocks a novel pathway influencing pheromone-induced aggression. Behav. Genet. 36, 291-300.

Ni,X.P., Butler,A.A., Cone,R.D., and Humphreys,M.H. (2006). Central receptors mediating the cardiovascular actions of melanocyte stimulating hormones. J. Hypertens. 24, 2239-2246.

O'Sullivan,G.J., Kinsella,A., Grandy,D.K., Tighe,O., Croke,D.T., and Waddington,J.L. (2006). Ethological resolution of behavioral topography and D2-like vs. D1-like agonist responses in congenic D4 dopamine receptor "knockouts": identification of D4:D1-like interactions. Synapse 59, 107-118.

Ojeda,S.R., Roth,C., Mungenast,A., Heger,S., Mastronardi,C., Parent,A.S., Lomniczi,A., and Jung,H. (2006). Neuroendocrine mechanisms controlling female puberty: new approaches, new concepts. Int. J. Androl 29, 256-263.

Overstreet-Wadiche,L.S., Bromberg,D.A., Bensen,A.L., and Westbrook,G.L. (2006). Seizures accelerate functional integration of adult-generated granule cells. J. Neurosci. 26, 4095-4103.

Overstreet-Wadiche,L.S., Bensen,A.L., and Westbrook,G.L. (2006). Delayed development of adult-generated granule cells in dentate gyrus. J. Neurosci. 26, 2326-2334.

Overstreet-Wadiche,L.S. and Westbrook,G.L. (2006). Functional maturation of adult-generated granule cells. Hippocampus 16, 208-215.

Qiao,W., Li,A.G., Owens,P., Xu,X., Wang,X.J., and Deng,C.X. (2006). Hair follicle defects and squamous cell carcinoma formation in Smad4 conditional knockout mouse skin. Oncogene 25, 207-217.

Risbrough,V.B., Masten,V.L., Caldwell,S., Paulus,M.P., Low,M.J., and Geyer,M.A. (2006). Differential contributions of dopamine D1, D2, and D3 receptors to MDMA-induced effects on locomotor behavior patterns in mice. Neuropsychopharmacology 31, 2349-2358.

Senften,M., Schwander,M., Kazmierczak,P., Lillo,C., Shin,J.B., Hasson,T., Geleoc,G.S., Gillespie,P.G., Williams,D., Holt,J.R. et al. (2006). Physical and functional interaction between protocadherin 15 and myosin VIIa in mechanosensory hair cells. J. Neurosci. 26, 2060-2071.

Smart,J.L., Tolle,V., and Low,M.J. (2006). Glucocorticoids exacerbate obesity and insulin resistance in neuron-specific proopiomelanocortin-deficient mice. J. Clin. Invest 116, 495-505.

Struys,E.A., Verhoeven,N.M., Jansen,E.E., Ten Brink,H.J., Gupta,M., Burlingame,T.G., Quang,L.S., Maher,T., Rinaldo,P., Snead,O.C. et al. (2006). Metabolism of gamma-hydroxybutyrate to d-2-hydroxyglutarate in mammals: further evidence for d-2-hydroxyglutarate transhydrogenase. Metabolism 55, 353-358.

Tian,Q., Beardall,M., Xu,Y., Li,J., Parker,D.C., Casanova,N., Bakke,A.C., and Chen,C. (2006). B cells expressing a natural polyreactive autoantibody have a distinct phenotype and are overrepresented in immunoglobulin heavy chain transgenic mice. J. Immunol. 177, 2412-2422.

Tomiyama,K., Makihara,Y., Yamamoto,H., O'Sullivan,G., Nally,R.E., Tighe,O., Kinsella,A., Fienberg,A.A., Grandy,D.K., Sibley,D.R. et al. (2006). Disruption of orofacial movement topographies in congenic mutants with dopamine D5 but not D4 receptor or DARPP-32 transduction 'knockout'. Eur. Neuropsychopharmacol. 16, 437-445.

Wiren,K.M., Toombs,A.R., Semirale,A.A., and Zhang,X. (2006). Osteoblast and osteocyte apoptosis associated with androgen action in bone: requirement of increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. Bone 38, 637-651.

Wu,Y., Buzzi,A., Frantseva,M., Velazquez,J.P., Cortez,M., Liu,C., Shen,L., Gibson,K.M., and Snead,O.C., III (2006). Status epilepticus in mice deficient for succinate semialdehyde dehydrogenase: GABAA receptor-mediated mechanisms. Ann. Neurol. 59, 42-52.


Appleyard,S.M., Bailey,T.W., Doyle,M.W., Jin,Y.H., Smart,J.L., Low,M.J., and Andresen,M.C. (2005). Proopiomelanocortin neurons in nucleus tractus solitarius are activated by visceral afferents: regulation by cholecystokinin and opioids. J. Neurosci. 25, 3578-3585.

Cristina,C., az-Torga,G., Baldi,A., Gongora,A., Rubinstein,M., Low,M.J., and Becu-Villalobos,D. (2005). Increased pituitary vascular endothelial growth factor-a in dopaminergic D2 receptor knockout female mice.Endocrinology 146, 2952-2962.

de Souza,F.S., Santangelo,A.M., Bumaschny,V., Avale,M.E., Smart,J.L., Low,M.J., and Rubinstein,M. (2005). Identification of neuronal enhancers of the proopiomelanocortin gene by transgenic mouse analysis and phylogenetic footprinting. Mol. Cell Biol. 25, 3076-3086.

de Souza,F.S., Bumaschny,V.F., Low,M.J., and Rubinstein,M. (2005). Subfunctionalization of expression and peptide domains following the ancient duplication of the proopiomelanocortin gene in teleost fishes. Mol. Biol. Evol. 22, 2417-2427.

Elmer,G.I., Pieper,J.O., Levy,J., Rubinstein,M., Low,M.J., Grandy,D.K., and Wise,R.A. (2005). Brain stimulation and morphine reward deficits in dopamine D2 receptor-deficient mice. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 182, 33-44.

Ghamari-Langroudi,M., Colmers,W.F., and Cone,R.D. (2005). PYY3-36 inhibits the action potential firing activity of POMC neurons of arcuate nucleus through postsynaptic Y2 receptors. Cell Metab 2, 191-199.

Gibson,K.M., Jakobs,C., Pearl,P.L., and Snead,O.C. (2005). Murine succinate semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH) deficiency, a heritable disorder of GABA metabolism with epileptic phenotype. IUBMB. Life 57, 639-644.

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