OHSU

Rodent Health Surveillance Program

Background

Health monitoring allows the Department of Comparative Medicine (DCM) veterinary staff to periodically check the health status of rodent colonies at OHSU.  This information assures that the research done at this institution is not compromised by inadvertent infections of the research animals.  Routine monitoring helps to detect the introduction of pathogenic organisms in a timely fashion so that effective countermeasures can be taken.

There are several different types of rodent colony housing at OHSU with slightly different health surveillance profiles, but all rodents are monitored.

  • Conventional – Rodents are housed in individually ventilated cages or micro-isolators (static filter top) and serviced in a clean-air animal transfer station/hood.  Caging & accessories are washed and sanitized at 180° F., bedding added, then autoclaved before use.  Feed is irradiated. The caging is handled with an effort to avoid cross contamination.  Investigators are allowed to transport rodents to labs or other approved areas & return them to the primary housing area by following clean procedures.
  • Room level BarrierRodents are housed in individually ventilated cages or micro-isolators and serviced in a clean-air animal transfer station/hood.  Caging, bedding and accessories are all sterilized before moving into room level Barriers and feed is irradiated.  Animals are typically not allowed to leave and return to the room. Some designated rooms at this level are allowed to have animals removed for imaging and returned only if specific SOPs are followed. Arrangements can be made to transfer them to Conventional holding rooms.
  • Barrier and Super BarrierRodents are housed in individually ventilated cages or micro-isolators and serviced in a clean-air animal transfer station/hood.  Caging, bedding and accessories are all sterilized before moving into these Barriers and feed is irradiated.If rodents are removed from the Barrier area, they may not be returned . Arrangements can be made to transfer them to Barrier at the room level where it is allowed, or Conventional holding rooms.
  • Biohazard Containment (BIO) – These rodents have been experimentally exposed to pathogens, chemicals or radioactive material.  These rooms/areas are strictly controlled with special requirements that are posted on the room.

  • Quarantine – These rodents are isolated from other colonies because of known or unknown health status.  These often include newly imported rodents or rodents that are suspected of having infectious pathogens based on results from the Rodent Health Surveillance Program.

Rodent Colony/Room Health History:  Health monitoring reports for all rodent colonies/rooms are kept in the DCM Central office. Contact DCM for more information.

Sentinel Animals

The most common method for monitoring rodent colonies/rooms at OHSU is the through the use of sentinel animals. 

  • Source: CD-1 mice and SD rats are usually obtained from Charles River Laboratories, JAX or Taconic.
  • Age: 4 to 6 week old females are received into the colony and are maintained for a period of 6 months to 1 year.
  • Number:  ~ 2 rodents/70 cages.
  • Housing: Sentinel animals are usually housed two per cage on the bottom row of each rack.  Sentinels are housed in the same type of caging as other animals on the rack.
  • Husbandry: Sentinels rodents are placed into a cage containing dirty bedding that was collected from every soiled cage on the rack or side of rack. This is done on the routine cage changing day.  The sentinel animals are always handled by DCM technicians after working with the research rodents within the group.
  • Duration: Sentinels usually remain in colonies/rooms for an average of 6 months to 1 year.  The length of time will vary on quarantined groups. 

Schedule of Testing

Conventional Rodent Colonies

Quarterly

  • Serology and fecal PCR are alternated for detection of pathogens
  • Fecal and fur sample PCR for detection of endo and ecto parasites

Yearly (second or fourth quarter)

Gross necropsy for examination of tissue. If suspicious lesions detected, tissues are processed for histology.

  • Extended serology
  • Fecal and fur sample PCR for detection of endo and ecto parasites, including protozoa

Barrier and Room level barrier Rodent Colonies

Quarterly

  • Serology and fecal PCR are alternated for detection of pathogens
  • Fecal and fur sample PCR for detection of endo and ecto parasites

Yearly (first or fourth quarter)

Gross necropsy for examination of tissue. If suspicious lesions detected, tissues are processed for histology.

  • Extended serology 
  • Fecal and fur sample PCR for detection of endo and ecto parasites, including protozoa
  • Oral, fecal and skin sample PCR for detection of bacteria and fungi
  • Mesenteric Lymph Node PCR for detection for MPV

Conventional Quarantine

Only rodents received from sources with a clear history of excluded pathogens are allowed to be imported into quarantine.

Two to five days after receipt

  • Fur, fecal and oral samples are PCR tested for detection of viral pathogens, endo and ecto parasites, protozoa, bacteria and fungi.

SPF Quarantine

Only rodents received from sources with a clear history of excluded pathogens are allowed to be imported into quarantine.

Two to five days after receipt

  • Fur, fecal and oral samples are PCR tested for detection of viral pathogens, endo and ecto parasites, protozoa, bacteria and fungi.

List of Excluded Viral Pathogens, Bacteria, Fungi, Endo and Ectoparasites

Excluded from OHSU DCM-C Conventional Mouse housing

  • MPV - Mouse Parvovirus
  • MVM - Minute Virus of Mice
  • MHV - Mouse Hepatitis Virus
  • EDIM - Epizootic Diarrhea of Infant Mice Virus
  • SEND - Sendai Virus
  • PVM - Pneumonia Virus of mice
  • TMEV - Theiler's Murine Encephalomyelitis Virus
  • REO - Reovirus
  • MPUL - Mycoplasma Pulmonis
  • Fur mites (Myobia, Mycoptes, Radfordia)
  • Pinworm (Aspiculuris and Syphacia

 







Excluded from OHSU DCM-C Barrier Mouse housing

  • MPV - Mouse Parvovirus
  • MVM - Minute Virus of Mice
  • MHV - Mouse Hepatitis Virus
  • TMEV - Theiler's Murine Encephalomyelitis Virus
  • EDIM - Epizootic Diarrhea of Infant Mice
  • MTLV - Mouse thymic virus
  • ECTRO - Ectromelia
  • Spironucleus Muris
  • Citrobacter Rodentium
  • Streptobacillus moniliformis
  • Campylobacter spp.
  • Fur mites (Myobia, Mycoptes, Radfordia)
  • SEND - Sendai Virus
  • PVM - Pneumonia Virus of Mice
  • REO - Reovirus
  • MPUL - Mycoplasma Pulmonis
  • K - Mouse Pneumonitis Virus
  • LCMV - Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis
  • Pneumocystis spp.
  • Corynebacterium kutscheri
  • Clostridium piliforme
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa
  • Cryptosoridium
  • POLY - Polyoma Virus
  • MCMV - Mouse Cytomegalovirus
  • HANT - Hantaan
  • ECUN - Encephalitozoon cuniculi
  • CARB - Cilia-associated respiratory virus
  • MAV - Mouse adenovirus
  • Giardia lamblia and Muris
  • Corynebacterium bovis
  • Salmonella spp.
  • Streptococcus pneumonia
  • Bordetella bronchiseptica
  • Pinworm (Aspiculuris and Syphacia)
















Excluded from OHSU DCM-C Super Barrier Mouse housing

All agents excluded from OHSU DCM-C Barrier Mouse housing plus:

  • Helicobacter (Genus, H. hepaticus, H. bilis)
  • Pasteurella pneumotropica
  • MNV - Mouse Norovirus




Excluded from OHSU DCM-C Conventional Rat housing

  • RPV - Rat Parvovirus
  • REO - Reovirus
  • MPUL - Mycoplasma Pulmonis
  • SDAV - Rat Coronavirus
  • SEND - Sendai Virus
  • Pinworm (Aspiculuris and Syphacia)
  • PVM - Pneumonia Virus of Mice
  • RMV - Rat Minute virus
  • MPV - Mouse parvovirus
  • RTV - Rat Theilovirus
  • Fur mites (Myobia, Mycoptes, Radfordia)
  • H-1 - Toolans H-1 virus
  • KRV - Kilham Rat virus
  • CARB - Cilia-associated respiratory virus
  • PCAR (RRV) - Pneumocystis carinii

 








Excluded from OHSU DCM-C Barrier Rat housing:

All agents excluded from OHSU DCM-C Conventional Rat housing plus:

  • LCMV - Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis
  • Clostridium piliforme
  • Pneumocystis spp.
  • Bordetella bronchiseptica
  • Corynebacterium kutscheri
  • Salmonella spp.
  • HANT - Hantaan
  • ECUN - Encephalitozoon cuniculi
  • Streptococcus pneumonia
  • Pasteurella pneumontropica
  • Klebsiella oxytoca
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa
  • MAV - Mouse adenovirus
  • IDIR (ROTA-B) - Rat rotavirus
  • Helicobacter (Genus H. hepaticus, H. bilis)
  • Campylobacter spp.
  • Klebsiella pneumonia
  • Streptobacillus moniliformis