OHSU Health Information Library Topics
Detailed information on H. pylori, including symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
22q11.2 deletion syndrome is a genetic disorder marked by hypoparathyroidism, certain heart defects, and a cleft lip or palate.
Detailed information on cancer in children, including causes, diagnosis, treatment, and coping
Detailed information on pediatric arthritis and other rheumatic diseases, including causes, symptoms, and members of the treatment team
An abrasion is a superficial rub or wearing off of the skin, usually caused by a scrape or a "brush burn." Abrasions are usually minor injuries that can be treated at home.
Detailed information on achondroplasia, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Acne is a disorder of the hair follicles and sebaceous glands. With acne, the sebaceous glands are clogged, which leads to pimples and cysts.
HIV can be passed to a child when he or she is in the mother's womb or as the infant passes through the birth canal. The virus has also been detected in breast milk.
Detailed information on acute bronchitis, including symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Acute fatty liver of pregnancy is a rare, but serious, condition of pregnancy in which there is an excessive accumulation of fat in the liver or liver cells.
Many types of trauma can cause an acute spinal cord injury. The more common types occur when the area of the spine or neck is bent or compressed.
Detailed information on adenovirus infections, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention
Adjustment disorders are quite common in children and teens. They are characterized by an excessive reaction to stress.
Detailed information on adolescent health problems and injuries, including acne, asthma, breast conditions, breast self-examination, diabetes, eye care, eye safety, gynecological conditions, menstrual conditions, gynecologic problems, pap test, vaginitis, vulvitis, menstrual disorders, amenorrhea, dysmenorrhea, premenstrual syndrome (PMS), high blood pressure, infectious mononucleosis, obesity, oral health, orthodontics, braces, wisdom teeth extraction, periodontal disease, orthopedic problems, osgood schlatter disease, scoliosis, slipped capital femoral epiphysis, sexually transmitted diseases, safer sex guidelines, sports safety, sports injuries, sprains, strains, tennis elbow, mouthguards, heat related illness, heat cramps, heat exhaustion, and heat stroke
Detailed information on adolescent problems of the teeth and mouth
Poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac can all cause bumps and blisters that itch. Teach your children what these plants look like and how to avoid them.
Pollen, dust mites, mold, and animal dander are the most common causes of allergic rhinitis.
Detailed information on allergy, including symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Detailed information on alpha thalassemia, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Amenorrhea is a menstrual condition in which a woman's menstrual periods are absent for more than three monthly cycles. Pregnancy is one possible cause of amenorrhea.
Too much or too little amniotic fluid around the fetus can cause problems. These include preterm labor, birth defects, and underdeveloped lungs in the fetus.
Detailed information on anaphylaxis, including causes, symptoms, and treatment
Detailed information on anemia, including symptoms, diagnosis, causes, types, and treatment
Doctor appointments and baby showers aren’t the only things that can tucker you out when you’re pregnant. Anemia is a condition that also can make you feel fatigued. Find out what you need to know to safeguard yourself.
Anencephaly is a type of neural tube defect present at birth. It affects the formation of the brain and the skull bones that surround the head.
Detailed information on animal bites and rabies, including symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention
Detailed information on animals as allergens
An anorectal malformation is a birth defect in which the anus and rectum do not develop properly.
Anorexia nervosa (or simply anorexia) is an eating disorder that causes people to obsess about their weight and food.
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is eating disorder that is a form of self-starvation. A child or teen with AN has abnormally low body weight, a distorted body image, and an intense fear of gaining weight.
This disease can have serious effects in pregnancy, both for the mother and the baby. These include strokes, blood clots, and recurrent miscarriage.
Detailed information on the most common types of anxiety disorders, including panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and phobias
Aortic stenosis affects the amount of blood that can flow from the left ventricle to the aorta. Symptoms vary with the degree of blockage.
Detailed information on aphthous stomatitis, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Detailed information on aplastic anemia, including cause, symptom, diagnosis, and treatment
It’s a cliché that many new parents need to reassure themselves that the baby is still breathing. But what if your baby really is having breathing problems? A breathing condition called apnea of prematurity affects some babies, especially if they’re born early. But you can learn what symptoms to look for.
Detailed information on appendicitis, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Detailed information on arrhythmias, including symptoms, types, diagnosis, and treatment
With proper asthma management and good prenatal care, most women with asthma can have healthy pregnancies.
Your child's asthma may be triggered by a number of things: pollen, molds, certain foods, strong odors, or even exercise.
Detailed information on eczema, including symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
An atrial septal defect is an opening in the dividing wall between the two upper chambers of the heart known as the right and left atria.
AV canal is a complex heart problem that involves several abnormalities of structures inside the heart.
ADHD is a behavior disorder marked by inattention, impulsivity, and, in some cases, hyperactivity.
A child with autism appears to live in his or her own world, showing little interest in others and a lack of social awareness.
Detailed information on autoimmune diseases and pregnancy
Detailed information on Marfan Syndrome, one type of autosomal dominant condition
Detailed information on autosomal recessive inheritance, including cystic fibrosis, sickle cell anemia, and Tay Sachs disease
Bacterial endocarditis is an infection of the lining of the heart. This infection can occur in anyone who has congenital heart disease.
Detailed information on bacterial skin infections, including impetigo, cellulitis, scarlet fever, folliculitis, boils, carbuncles, and staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome
Although a baby's activity level, appetite, and cries normally vary from day to day, even hour to hour, a distinct change in any of these areas may signal illness.
Detailed information on behavior problems in adolescents, including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, conduct disorder, and oppositional defiant disorder
Detailed information on benign skin growths and pigmentation disorders in children
Detailed information on beta thalassemia (Cooley's anemia), including diagnosis and treatment
Detailed information on biliary atresia, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Detailed information on manic depression, including symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Detailed information on birth injury, including the most common types of birth injury
Detailed information on birthmarks and the different types, including vascular birthmarks, hemangiomas, and port-wine stains
Detailed information on bites, including human bites, animal bites, and insect bites
Detailed information on bleeding disorders, including Hemophilia and Idiopathic Thrombocytopenia Purpura
Bleeding may occur at various times in pregnancy. Although bleeding is alarming, it may or may not be a serious complication.
Detailed information on blepharitis, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Detailed information on blisters, including cause, first-aid, and treatment
A blocked tear duct can occur in one or both eyes. The blockage may be present at all times, or it may come and go.
Clotting disorders are a group of conditions in which people are more likely than normal to experience excessive clotting. The medical term for this is thrombophilia. These disorders may first be spotted in childhood but are usually identified in adolescence and young adulthood.
Detailed information on blood donations and blood banking
Symptoms of hyphema include blood visible in the eye, usually following some type of trauma. Immediate medical care is necessary.
Detailed information on bone cancer in children, including Ewing sarcoma and osteogenic sarcoma
A brain abscess is a rare infection in the brain caused by viruses or bacteria. Symptoms include fever, severe headache, and nausea or vomiting.
Brain tumors are the most common solid tumors in children. Brain tumors that occur in infants and children are very different from adult brain tumors, both in terms of the type of cells and the responsiveness to treatment.
Detailed information on branchial cleft abnormality, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Some breast changes or conditions are related to a young woman's menstrual cycle, but others may occur at any time. Most breast conditions are benign.
Detailed information on breastfeeding difficulties of the baby, including ineffective latch-on, ineffective sucking, slow infant weight gain, poor infant weight gain, mismanaged breastfeeding, over-active breast milk let down
Detailed information on breastfeeding difficulties of the mother, including sore nipples, low breast milk production, flat nipples, plugged milk ducts, and mastitis
If you listen closely, you’ll notice that your baby’s breathing isn’t like yours. Babies breathe much more frequently and with different patterns than adults. Here’s how to recognize normal breathing in your infant—and how to spot signs of respiratory distress.
Detailed information on bronchiolitis, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention
A bruise is a collection of blood underneath the skin that is caused by trauma to an area of the body. Sometimes, enough bleeding occurs so that a lump also forms.
A black eye should be seen by a doctor to make sure no injury has occurred to the eye itself. Most black eyes heal completely and do not cause any damage.
Bulimia nervosa is defined as uncontrolled episodes of overeating (bingeing) usually followed by self-induced vomiting, misuse of laxatives, enemas, or medications in an attempt to control weight.
Burns are a type of injury caused by thermal, electrical, chemical, or electromagnetic energy. Most burn accidents occur at home.
Campylobacter is more common in summer than in winter. Symptoms typically include cramping, diarrhea, abdominal pain, and fever.
Detailed information on candidiasis (yeast infection), including symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Carbon monoxide is a poisonous, colorless, tasteless, odorless gas. It is the most common cause of accidental poisoning-related deaths and is often called "the silent killer."
Cardiomyopathy is any disease of the heart muscle in which the heart loses its ability to pump blood effectively.
Cat scratches and bites can cause cat scratch disease, a bacterial infection carried in cat saliva. Young kittens younger than a year old are more likely to scratch, increasing the likelihood of infection.
Cat scratch disease is most common in children under age 10. In almost all cases of cat scratch disease, the person who develops it will have had contact with a cat or kitten.
Detailed information on cataracts, including causes, symptoms, risk factors, diagnosis, and treatment
Detailed information on cellulitis, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Cerebral palsy is a life-long condition that affects the communication between the brain and the muscles, causing a permanent state of uncoordinated movement and posturing.
Detailed information on chalazion, including cause, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Chemical burns can occur when strong acids or alkalies come in contact with the skin and/or the eyes.
A chemical burn occurs when a child gets any type of chemical in his or her eye. This is a medical emergency, and the child should receive immediate medical care.
A Chiari malformation is a birth defect in the area of the back of the head where the brain and spinal cord connect.
Detailed information on childhood glaucoma, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Detailed information on folliculitis, boils, and carbuncles
Cholestasis of pregnancy is a condition in which the normal flow of bile in the gallbladder is slowed or stopped resulting in itching and jaundice.
Chorioamnionitis is an infection of the membranes and amniotic fluid. It occurs in about 1 to 2 percent of all pregnancies, but is much more common in preterm births.
Detailed information on chromosome abnormalities, including trisomies, monosomies, and genetic translocations
When a woman has pre-existing hypertension or develops hypertension before the 20th week of pregnancy, this is called chronic hypertension.
If your baby was born premature and needed to be on a respirator, her lungs may have been damaged. This can cause a condition called chronic lung disease (CLD). But CLD can be treated, and as lungs mature the condition can improve. Learn about the symptoms and treatments for CLD.
Detailed information on craniofacial anomalies, including cleft lip and cleft palate
Detailed information on clubfoot, including causes, risk factors, diagnosis, treatment, and cast care
Coarctation of the aorta refers to a narrowing of the aorta that restricts the amount of oxygen-rich blood that can travel to the lower part of the body.
Though the name sounds like a disease, colic is really just a term for excessive crying in an infant. Unfortunately, nobody knows for sure what causes colic, but there are several theories and possible risk factors for the condition.
Detailed information on common childhood external ear problems
Detailed information on common children's digestive problems, including colic, diarrhea, food allergies, and lactose intolerance
Detailed information on common conditions and complications of the high-risk newborn
Detailed information on common dental problems and concerns in children
Detailed information on common skin disorders, including Bacterial Skin Infections, Fungal Skin Infections, Viral Skin Infections, Viral Exanthems (Rashes), and Parasitic Skin Infections
Detailed information on the most common types of pediatric arthritis and other rheumatic diseases, including Juvenile Dermatomyositis, Fibromyalgia, Juvenile Ankylosing Spondylitis, Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis, Psoriatic Arthritis, Rheumatic Fever, Scleroderma, Septic Arthritis, Infectious Arthritis, Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, Lupus, Vasculitis, Kawasaki Disease, and Henoch-Schönlein Purpura
Detailed information on common variable immunodeficiency, including symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Young children with communication disorders may not speak at all, or may have a limited vocabulary for their age. Some children with communication disorders have difficulty understanding simple directions or are unable to name objects.
Detailed information on complex heart problems
A child with a conduct disorder has antisocial behaviors that violate the rights of others and age-appropriate social standards and rules.
Detailed information on the most common congenital and hereditary disorders in children
Heart problems are the most common kind of birth defects. While children with some heart defects can be monitored by a doctor and treated with medicine, others will need to have surgery.
Detailed information on congenital laryngeal stridor, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Congenital limb defects occur when a portion or the entire upper or lower limb fails to form normally when the baby is developing in the uterus.
Detailed information on congenital liver defects, including biliary atresia and choledochal cyst
Detailed information on congenital muscular torticollis, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Conjunctivitis, or pink eye, is a very common problem in children. Large outbreaks of conjunctivitis are often seen in day-care settings and schools.
Common causes of constipation in children: a low-fiber diet, not enough fluids, lack of exercise, and emotional issues.
Detailed information on contact dermatitis, including symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
A corneal abrasion is a scratch or injury to the cornea, the clear, dome-shaped surface that covers the front of the eye. This is a very common occurrence in children.
Craniosynostosis is a condition in which the fibrous joints between the skull’s bony plates close too early, causing problems with normal brain and skull growth.
Detailed information on Crohn's disease, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
A child with strabismus has one or both eyes that turn inward, outward, up, or down. At times, more than one of these conditions are present.
Croup is most common in children younger than 5, with the peak age around 2. Croup occurs most often in winter.
Any wound to the ear cartilage that is more than just a superficial cut or laceration should be seen by a doctor to decide if stitches are needed.
Most minor cuts or wounds to the face can be handled at home with simple first-aid treatment.
The gums, tongue, and lips have a rich blood supply and when cuts occur, these areas may bleed excessively.
Most minor nose wounds can be handled at home, but a wound or bruise that also involves one or both eyes requires immediate medical attention.
Detailed information on cystic fibrosis, including symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and genetics
CMV may be passed from a mother to her baby during pregnancy and is the most common congenital viral infection.
Before the simple blood test that checks for PKU became routine, the condition could go undetected long enough to cause severe intellectual disability. Now the disorder can be diagnosed before it leads to any damage.
Detailed information on deformational plagiocephaly, including symptoms and treatment
Detailed information on delayed puberty, including symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
One type of dental emergency is a knocked-out tooth. If it's a permanent tooth, rinse it and place it back in the socket. Then immediately take your child to the dentist.
Detailed information on dermatitis, including the different types of dermatitis such as atopic dermatitis (eczema), contact dermatitis, dermatitis herpetiformis, generalized exfoliative dermatitis, seborrheic dermatitis, localized scratch dermatitis, nummular dermatitis, perioral dermatitis, and stasis dermatitis
Dermatomyositis is a rare disease marked by increasing muscle weakness, skin rash and inflammation, and swelling of the eyelids.
Detailed information on dermoid cyst, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Detailed information on developmental disorders in children
Detailed information on developmental dysplasia of the hip, including causes, symptoms, risk factors, diagnosis, treatment, and cast care
Detailed information on deviated septum, including possible complications of nasal surgery
It's important for a woman with diabetes to keep her blood sugar under tight control while she's pregnant.
Detailed information on diabetes insipidus, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
In most cases, anemia can be diagnosed with a few simple blood tests. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that all infants be given a blood test to look for anemia at 6 months, 9 months, or 12 months of age.
Diamond Blackfan anemia (DBA) is a rare blood disorder that is usually diagnosed in children during their first year of life. Children with DBA do not make enough red blood cells – the cells that carry oxygen to all other cells in the body.
Detailed information on diaper dermatitis, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
You have two choices in diapers—cloth or disposable, and each type has advantages. You must decide which works best for your child and family.
A diaphragmatic hernia is a birth defect in which an opening is present in the diaphragm. Some of the organs that are normally found in the abdomen move up into the chest cavity through this abnormal opening.
Diarrhea is defined either as watery stool or increased frequency of stool—or both—when compared with a normal amount. It is a common problem that may last a few days and disappear on its own.
Detailed information on digestive and liver disorders during pregnancy
Detailed information on diphtheria, including symptoms, transmission, treatment, and prevention
Diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus are serious illnesses. A combination vaccine is given to babies and children to provide protection against all three diseases.
A dislocation occurs when extreme force is put on a ligament, allowing the ends of two connected bones to separate. Ligaments are flexible bands of fibrous tissue that connect various bones and cartilage.
Detailed information on disorders affecting calcium metabolism, including juvenile osteoporosis, hyperparathyroidism, hypoparathyroidism, and DiGeorge syndrome
Detailed information on disorders affecting the adrenal glands, including underactive adrenal glands (Addison's disease), overactive adrenal glands (Cushing's syndrome), and pheochromocytoma
Detailed information on disorders affecting the pituitary gland, including posterior anterior disorders and anterior pituitary disorders
Detailed information on disorders affecting the thyroid gland, including hyperthyroidism (Graves disease) and hypothyroidism
Detailed information on ambiguous genitalia, including determining gender and treatment
When your immune system doesn’t work the way it should, it is called an immune system disorder.
Down syndrome is a genetic disorder that includes a combination of birth defects, including some degree of mental retardation, characteristic facial features and, often, heart defects.
Detailed information on different types of drug rashes, including acne, exfoliative dermatitis, fixed drug eruption, hives, morbilliform/maculopapular rash, purpuric eruptions, Stevens-Johnson syndrome
Detailed information on dust mite allergens
Dyskeratosis congenita is a congenital disease, meaning it is present at birth. It was initially thought to only affect the skin and nails, but today experts understand that dyskeratosis congenita in its most severe form causes bone marrow failure.
Dysmenorrhea is a menstrual condition marked by severe and frequent menstrual cramps and pain. Dysmenorrhea can be either lifelong or caused by another medical condition.
Detailed information on dysphagia, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Detailed information on dysthymia, including symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Detailed information on ear disorders in children
Detailed information on adolescents and eating disorders, including anorexia, bulimia, and obesity
Ectopic pregnancies nearly always occur in the fallopian tube. Rarely, an ectopic pregnancy will be located in an ovary or in the cervix, or even in the abdomen.
Eisenmenger’s syndrome primarily affects adolescents and adults with congenital heart defects that were repaired after their first birthday or that were never repaired.
Electrical burns occur when a child comes in contact with electricity, either alternating current (AC) or direct current (DC).
Encephalitis refers to inflammation of the brain. The inflammation causes the brain to swell, which leads to changes in the child's neurological condition, including mental confusion and seizures.
Detailed information on encopresis, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
In the male reproductive system, the epididymis is a tiny coiled tube that stores, matures, and carries sperm. When the epididymis gets infected for one reason or another, it leads to inflammation, known as epididymitis.
Detailed information on epiglottitis, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Epilepsy and the medications to treat it can have affect the mother, the pregnancy, and the fetus and newborn. Fortunately, most women are able to have a healthy pregnancy and baby.
Detailed information on Ewing sarcoma, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Detailed information on exstrophy of the bladder, including diagnosis and treatment
Detailed information on eye trauma in children
Eyelid lacerations are cuts to the eyelid caused by trauma. Your child's doctor will examine the eye closely to make sure no damage has occurred to the eye itself.
Failure to thrive means that a child is not growing as he or she should. Psychological, social, or economic problems within the family almost always play a role in this condition.
Fanconi anemia is a blood disorder in which the bone marrow doesn’t make enough blood cells or makes abnormal types of blood cells.
Femoral anteversion is an inward twisting of the thigh bone. It is typically detected when a child is 4 to 6 years old.
Fetal alcohol syndrome refers to a group of abnormalities in babies born to mothers who drink during pregnancy. The problems include small head and brain, facial abnormalities, and defects of other organs.
When your child has a fever, the body resets its thermostat at a higher temperature. This helps the body fight off invading microorganisms.
Detailed information fibromyalgia, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Fifth disease is caused by the human parvovirus. It is most prevalent in the winter and spring and is usually seen in school-aged children.
First-degree burns affect only the epidermis, or outer layer of skin. The burn site is red, painful, and dry, with no blisters. Mild sunburn is an example.
Detailed information on breastfeeding and flat or inverted nipples
Children usually place things in their ears because they are bored, curious, or copying other children. Some objects may cause no symptoms, but other objects, such as food and insects, may cause pain in the ear, redness, or drainage.
The foreign object may be in the conjunctiva—the thin membrane that covers the actual eye—or in the cornea, the clear, dome-shaped surface that covers the front of the eye.
Fractures occur when more force is applied to the bone than the bone can absorb. Bones are weakest when they are twisted.
The orbit is the bony structure around the eye. A blow to the face can break one or more of these bones and can result in severe eye injury and damage.
Detailed information on frostbite, including symptoms and what to do if frostbite occurs
Detailed information on fungal skin infections, including Candidiasis, Tinea Infections, and Tinea Versicolor
Hiccups. Belching. Stomachache. Sound like a case of heartburn? It isn’t an adults-only condition. If your baby has some of these symptoms, she may have gastroesophageal reflux. If feeding changes don’t bring relief, your doctor may prescribe medications to help.
Detailed information on gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
If your baby seems fussy and you’ve fed and changed him, he may have an upset stomach or colic. But don’t worry, there are lots of things you can do to make your little one more comfortable and keep both of you calm.
Children or teens with generalized anxiety disorder often worry a lot about future events, past behaviors, social acceptance, and school performance.
Severe immune disorders may be obvious right after birth. Other immune disorders may cause only mild symptoms and may not be noticed until later in childhood or early adulthood.
Detailed information on germ cell tumors, including causes, types, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Gestational diabetes is a condition in which a pregnant woman has elevated glucose levels and other symptoms of diabetes—but did not have diabetes before she became pregnant.
Pregnancy-induced hypertension is also called toxemia or preeclampsia. It occurs most often in young women with a first pregnancy.
Detailed information on glomerulonephritis, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Detailed information on gonadotropin-independent precocious puberty, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
The process of grieving is often long and painful for parents, siblings, relatives, friends, peers, teachers, neighbors, and anyone that understands the loss of a child.
You’ve probably never heard of group B streptococcus. That’s because you didn’t need to before you were pregnant. This bacterium generally doesn’t cause problems for healthy nonpregnant women. But it can cause illness in pregnant women and their babies. Here’s what you need to know.
Detailed information on growth hormone deficiency, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Detailed information on growth problems, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Guillain-Barré syndrome is a neurological disorder in which a child's immune system attacks part of the peripheral nervous system. The disorder usually occurs a few days or weeks after the child has had symptoms of a respiratory or gastrointestinal viral infection.
Detailed information on the most common gynecological and menstrual conditions that affect adolescents
Detailed information on gynecological problems in a child
Detailed information on Haemophilus influenzae, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, transmission, treatment, and prevention
Haemophilus influenzae type b is a serious bacterial disease that usually strikes children younger than 5. It is spread from person-to-person by coughing and sneezing.
Detailed information on hand-foot-mouth disease, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
The more common causes of head injury in children are falls, motor vehicle accidents—in which the child is either a passenger or a pedestrian—or a result of child abuse.
Many headaches in children may be caused by tight muscles and dilated blood vessels in the head. Other headaches may be caused by an actual problem, such as a tumor or malformation of the brain, although this is much less common.
Detailed information on health promotion and common health problems in children
Hearing loss in babies is rare in this country, but when it does occur, it's important to diagnose it early. Undetected hearing loss can delay speech and language development.
Sensorineural hearing loss involves the inner ear or its connection with the brain. Conductive hearing loss involves the middle or outer ear.
In pregnancy, blood volume increases greatly. This extra fluid puts an increased workload on the heart and may cause problems for a woman with heart disease.
Detailed information on congestive heart failure, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Your doctor may have told you your child has a heart murmur. While that can sound scary, there are many different kinds of heart murmurs. Some heart murmurs are not even related to heart disease.
A heat-induced or thermal burn can occur when the skin comes in contact with any heat source, such as a cooking pan, an iron, a fire, a hot surface, or a hot, scalding liquid.
Children and teens are at greater risk for heat-related illnesses for several reasons. They adjust more slowly to changes in air temperature. They also produce more heat with activity and sweat less.
HELLP syndrome is a serious complication of severe pregnancy-induced high blood pressure. It usually develops before delivery, but may also occur after delivery.
Detailed information on hemifacial microsomia, including types, causes, diagnosis, and treatment
Most people carry hemoglobin A in their red blood cells. Those who carry hemoglobin C, considered an abnormal variation, may develop hemoglobin C disease. This blood disorder develops because the red blood cells break down earlier than they should, leaving too few in the blood and leading to mild anemia.
Many people with hemoglobin E trait have no symptoms. Those with more severe hemoglobin E-related disorders may experience mild thalassemia, or anemialike symptoms, but even these are rare.
Detailed information on aplastic anemia, including cause, symptom, diagnosis, and treatment
This condition occurs when an incompatibility exists between the blood types of the mother and baby.
Detailed information on hemolytic uremic syndrome, including cause, progression, treatment, and statistics
Detailed information on hemophilia, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Detailed information on Henoch-Schönlein purpura, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
An infant or young child who contracts hepatitis B is at greater risk of staying infected with the virus and of having life-long liver problems, such as scarring of the liver and liver cancer.
Six main types of the hepatitis virus that have been identified: A, B, C, D, E, and G. Vaccination can protect children from several forms of hepatitis.
Detailed information on hepatoblastoma, including causes, stages, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Detailed information on herpangina, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Detailed information on cold sores and herpes simplex virus 1
Detailed information on shingles, including symptoms, diagnosis, complications, and treatment
Blood pressures vary depending on the age, height, weight, and gender of your child. Generally, blood pressure is low in infancy and rises slowly as children age.
Detailed information on Hirschsprung's disease, including risks, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Detailed information on Hodgkin's lymphoma, including causes, symptoms, staging, diagnosis, and treatment
Detailed information on horseshoe kidney, including symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Detailed information on human bites, including treatment for human bites
Detailed information on human parainfluenza viruses, including symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention
This disease is one of the most common problems of premature babies. It can cause babies to need extra oxygen and help in breathing.
Detailed information on hydrocele, including symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Hydrocephalus is a condition in which a buildup of fluid in the brain causes the pressure inside of the head to increase and the skull bones to expand to a larger-than-normal appearance.
This is a life-threatening problem of severe swelling in the fetus and newborn. It develops when too much fluid leaves the bloodstream and goes into the tissues.
A newborn with this condition has too much bilirubin in the blood. Bilirubin causes a yellowing of the baby's skin and tissues. This is called jaundice.
Vomiting—especially during the first trimester—is normal for many women during pregnancy. Constantly vomiting is not. Take action to prevent a serious complication.
Detailed information on hyperparathyroidism, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Hyperthyroidism means that the thyroid gland is overactive, producing too much thyroid hormone. The excess hormone leads to an overactive metabolism.
A baby with this condition has too little calcium in the blood. Hypocalcemia is more common in premature and low birthweight babies.
Causes of hypoglycemia in children with diabetes may include a missed meal, too much medication, or more exercise than usual.
Babies who are more likely to develop hypoglycemia include those born to women who have diabetes.
Detailed information on hypoparathyroidism, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Detailed information on hypopituitarism, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Hypoplastic left heart syndrome is a combination of several abnormalities of the heart and great blood vessels.
Hypospadias is a disorder in newborn boys in which the opening of the urethra is not located at the tip of the penis.
Hypothyroidism is the condition in which the thyroid is underactive—producing too little thyroid hormone.
Detailed information on idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Detailed information on the immune system and immune disorders
Most people with an IgA deficiency don’t have any symptoms related to the disorder. In these cases, it’s found on a blood test, if it’s found at all.
Scientists have found a way to use the body's immune system to help treat or defend against a number of health problems. This treatment is known as immunotherapy.
Detailed information on impetigo, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Detailed information on ineffective latch-on or sucking during breastfeeding
Detailed information on infant problems of the teeth and mouth
Newborns are particularly susceptible to infections. One of the best ways to keep your baby infection-free is to wash your hands before and after handling him or her. Other preventive measures may also be necessary.
Detailed information on infectious diseases in children
Infectious mononucleosis is caused by either the Epstein-Barr virus or the cytomegalovirus, both of which are members of the herpes simplex virus family.
Influenza is a highly contagious infection of the upper respiratory system. It's one of the most severe illnesses of the winter season, affecting up to 20 percent of Americans each year.
Detailed information on hernia, including risks, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Detailed information on inguinal hernia, including causes, risk factors, diagnosis, and treatment
Detailed information on insect bites, including fleas, mites, chiggers, and ticks
For most children, the reaction to a sting is short-lived, with redness and swelling followed by pain and itching. For others, however, the allergic reaction to an insect sting can be life threatening.
Don't attempt to remove the insect by poking it with a cotton swab. This may push the insect farther into the ear or cause damage to the middle ear and eardrum.
Detailed information on insufficient or delayed milk production
Detailed information on intestinal malrotation and volvulus, including risk, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Newborn babies with this condition often appear thin, pale, and have loose, dry skin. The umbilical cord is often thin and dull-looking rather than shiny and fat.
If your baby is born prematurely, there are many worries that likely go through your mind. One of the things that can happen is bleeding on the brain. Read on to learn about this and what doctors can do help your baby.
Detailed information on intussusception, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Detailed information on aplastic anemia, including cause, symptom, diagnosis, and treatment
Detailed information on irritable bowel syndrome, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Detailed information on juvenile ankylosing spondylitis, including symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Detailed information on juvenile dermatomyositis, including causes, symptoms, phases, diagnosis, and treatment
Detailed information on juvenile osteoporosis, including cause, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Detailed information on juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, including cause, symptom, diagnosis, and treatment
The main threat from Kawasaki disease comes from its effect on the heart and blood vessels.
Keratitis is an inflammation or infection of the cornea of the eye. It is a medical emergency because it can lead to blindness if not treated.
Kyphosis is a forward curvature of the spine. It is a type of spinal deformity and should not be confused with poor posture.
Stitches, also called sutures, are special types of thread that hold the edges of a wound together while it heals.
A laceration is tear or opening in the skin caused by an injury. Some lacerations are small and need only minor treatment at home.
Detailed information on lactose intolerance, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Langerhans cell histiocytosis most often strikes young children and causes damage to tissues throughout the body.
The average baby weighs about 7 pounds at birth. About 10 percent of all babies weigh more than 8 pounds, 13 ounces. Rarely do babies weigh over 10 pounds.
Symptoms of latex allergy include watery or itchy eyes, wheezing, hives, flushing or a skin rash, itching, or swelling.
Lead poisoning is a totally preventable disease. Children ages 1 to 3 who live in low-income housing built before 1978 are especially at risk.
Learning disorders are sometimes called learning disabilities. Most children with learning disorders have normal intelligence, but they have difficulty with reading, math, or another academic area.
This disease is a temporary condition that causes the hip joint to become painful and stiff.
Detailed information on leukemia in childhood, including symptoms, staging, diagnosis, and treatment
Detailed information on lice, including diagnosis and treatment
You’ve probably been warned not to eat brie cheese or order your steak cooked to anything less than medium. Why do you have to take these precautions? Listeriosis. Learn more about this food-borne illness and how to avoid it.
A spine affected by lordosis has a curve in the vertebrae in the lower back area, giving the child a "swayback" appearance.
If your baby’s birthweight was lower than normal due to premature birth or some other factor, don’t worry. With proper medical attention and your loving care, your baby will soon catch up with the other children in the nursery.
Detailed information on breastfeeding and low breast milk production
Lying and stealing are common, but inappropriate, behaviors in school-aged children. Most of the time these behaviors will be outgrown.
Lyme disease is the leading cause of all insect-borne illness in the United States. It is a year-round problem, although April through October is considered tick season.
Detailed information on lymphadenopathy, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Detailed information on lymphatic malformation, including cause, symptom, diagnosis, and treatment
Depression is a mood disorder that involves a adolescent's body, mood, and thoughts. It can affect and disrupt eating, sleeping, or thinking patterns.
Detailed information on malocclusion, including causes, diagnosis, and treatment
Hair loss is a common side effect of most forms of chemotherapy. Younger children may not be bothered by hair loss, but the school-aged child or teenager may be devastated.
Nearly all chemotherapy drugs affect the number of blood cells in the body. When the number drops, the risk for anemia, fatigue, infection, and bleeding increases.
Mucositis can be a very troublesome and painful side effect of chemotherapy. Common symptoms include diarrhea and abdominal cramping or tenderness.
Manic depression, also known as bipolar disorder, is a type of affective disorder that goes beyond the day's ordinary ups and downs. It is becoming an important health concern in this country.
Marfan syndrome is a genetic disorder involving the body's connective tissue, including the heart, lungs, and spinal cord.
Detailed information on breastfeeding and mastitis
Detailed information on mastoiditis, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
In pregnancy, infections are a common complication—but women may not have obvious symptoms, or they may show different symptoms of an infection.
The MMR vaccine is given in two doses—at 12 to 15 months and at 4 to 6 years, or at least one month after the first dose.
Detailed information on Meckel's diverticulum, including risk factors, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Meconium aspiration occurs when a baby breathes in amniotic fluid containing meconium (the baby's first stools).
With proper medical care, most women can enjoy a healthy pregnancy, despite medical challenges such as diabetes or high blood pressure.
Detailed information on megaloblastic (pernicious) anemia, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Detailed information on megaureter, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Meningitis is an inflammation of the membranes that surround the brain and the spinal cord. Bacteria or viruses are the more common causes.
Detailed information on meningococcal infections, including symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention
Metatarsus adductus is a common foot deformity noted at birth that causes the front half of the foot, or forefoot, to turn inward.
An infant with microcephaly has a head that is much smaller than normal for an infant of that age and gender. Most children with microcephaly also have a small brain and mental retardation.
Detailed information on micropenis, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Many women experience migraine headaches while pregnant. The good news is that you don’t have to give in to the pain when it strikes. Know what pain-relief options are safest for you.
Detailed information on minor cuts, scrapes, and skin wounds in children
Ultrasound is usually used to diagnose miscarriage. If the fetus is no longer in the uterus, or there is no longer a fetal heartbeat, miscarriage is diagnosed.
Detailed information on mismanaged breastfeeding, including information on breastfeeding positions
Detailed information on mitochondrial inheritance and Leber's optic atrophy
Detailed information on mold allergy, including potential sources of mold inside and outside the home
Detailed information on molluscum contagiosum, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
These conditions cause no symptoms. In fact, monoclonal protein in the blood is often found by accident when doing other routine blood work.
Detailed information on the most common types of mood disorders, including major depression, manic depression (bipolar disorder), dysthymia, seasonal affective disorder, and suicide
Detailed information on mosaic Down syndrome, including the chances for it to happen again in a family
Detailed information on mosaicism, including a mosaicism diagram
MRSA infections generally begin as skin infections. The germ invades the skin through an open sore or scrape. For children, the most common source of infection is a simple cut.
Detailed information on multifactorial inheritance, including different multifactorial traits and diseases
Pregnancy does not appear to speed up the course or worsen the effects of MS. Some studies have found that MS symptoms decrease in pregnancy and increase after delivery.
Mumps is a highly contagious viral illness that usually occurs in childhood. It is no longer common in the United States because children are now vaccinated against it.
Muscular dystrophy causes the muscles in the body to become very weak. The muscles break down and are replaced with fatty deposits over time.
Early symptoms of mushroom poisoning include stomach cramps, vomiting, and watery or bloody diarrhea. If your child has any of these symptoms, call your child's doctor immediately.
Pregnant women with MG often have more weakness and fatigue because of the added weight and effort of pregnancy. Preterm labor (labor before 37 weeks of pregnancy) is more likely.
Natal teeth are teeth that are present when the infant is born. They are usually the infant's primary teeth (or baby teeth) that have come in early.
Detailed information on neck abscess, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
This condition appears to develop when the intestines are weakened by too little oxygen or blood. The weakened tissues can become severely damaged and die, which causes a hole in the intestinal wall.
Neonatal abstinence syndrome is a term for a group of problems a baby experiences when withdrawing from exposure to narcotics.
Detailed information on nephrotic syndrome, including types, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Neuroblastoma is a cancerous tumor that begins in nerve tissue of infants and very young children. The abnormal cells are often found in the nerve tissue that is present in the unborn baby and later develops into a detectable tumor.
Neurocutaneous syndrome is a broad term for a group of disorders. These diseases are life-long conditions that can cause tumors to grow inside the brain, spinal cord, organs, skin, and skeletal bones.
In children a neurogenic bladder may be secondary to a birth defect such as spina bifida or it may be acquired as the result of a different problem.
Detailed information on the most common neurological disorders in the newborn
Detailed information on the most common neuromuscular disorders in children
Detailed information on the most common types of newborn complications
Because some potential problems aren’t readily seen at birth, all newborns are tested for certain conditions, including metabolic disorders.
Crying is the way babies communicate. They cry because of hunger, discomfort, frustration, fatigue, and even loneliness.
A night terror is a partial waking from sleep with behaviors such as screaming, kicking, panic, sleep walking, thrashing, or mumbling.
Detailed information on non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, including causes, staging, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Detailed information on non-infectious skin conditions, including dermatitis, acne, drug rashes, poison ivy/poison oak, and toxic epidermal necrolysis
Detailed information on nontraditional inheritance, including uniparental disomy and Prader-Willi Syndrome and Angelman Syndrome, trinucleotide repeats and Fragile-X Syndrome, and mitochondrial inheritance and Leber's Optic Atrophy
Nosebleeds are fairly common in children, especially in dry climates or during the winter months, when dry heat inside homes and buildings can cause drying, cracking, or crusting inside the nose.
Detailed information on numerical abnormalities, including an overview on trisomies and monosomies
Nursemaid's elbow occurs when the radius—one of the bones in the forearm—slips out of place from where it normally attaches to the elbow joint.
Did you know that babies can get cavities? They can—usually when they go to bed with a bottle filled with milk or juice. Find out how to prevent this type of tooth decay, which is also called nursing bottle caries.
Children who are inactive—spending time watching TV or sitting at a computer—are at higher risk for obesity, especially when their diet contains lots of high-calorie foods and beverages.
Rituals and obsessive thoughts are a normal part of a teen's development. An adolescent with OCD has obsessive thoughts that are unwanted and related to fears.
Detailed information on obstructive sleep apnea, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
An infant with an omphalocele has a portion of the abdominal organs protruding through an opening in the muscles near the umbilical cord.
This behavior disorder is characterized by uncooperative, defiant, negativistic, irritable, and annoying behaviors toward parents, peers, teachers, and other authority figures.
Detailed information on orthopedic problems and teens
Osgood-Schlatter disease is an overuse condition or injury of the knee that causes pain and swelling below the knee area over the shin bone.
Osteogenesis imperfecta is also known as brittle-bone disease because it is characterized by bones that break easily without a specific cause.
Detailed information on osteomyelitis, including symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Detailed information on osteosarcoma, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Detailed information on other chromosome arrangements, including rings and inversions
Detailed information on benign skin growths, including dermatofibromas, dermoid cyst, freckles, keloids, lipomas, moles, atypical moles, pyogenic granulomas
Swimmer's ear is caused by fungi or bacteria that are encouraged to grow because of water that remains trapped in the ear canal after swimming.
Otitis media is inflammation in the middle ear. Otitis media can occur as a result of a cold, sore throat, or respiratory infection.
Detailed information on Cushing's syndrome and overactive adrenal glands, including symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Many nursing mothers worry if their babies aren’t getting enough milk—but what if the opposite were true? Here’s what you can do to make sure your aren’t overwhelming your baby during feeding time.
Detailed information on overuse injuries in children, including jumper's knee, patellar tendonitis, little leaguers' elbow, little leaguers' shoulder, osteochondritis dissecans, Sever's disease, shin splints, Sinding-Larsen-Johansson disease, spondylolisthesis, and spondylolysis
A "birth defect" is a health problem or physical change that is present in a baby at the time he/she is born.
Detailed information on craniofacial anomalies, including cleft lip, cleft palate, craniosynostosis, hemifacial microsomia, vascular malformation, hemangioma, and deformational plagiocephaly
Detailed information on genitourinary disorders in children
The most common symptoms of nervous system disorders in children include delays in developmental milestones, an increase or lack of growth in head size, and a lack of coordination.
Detailed information on parasitic skin infections, including scabies and lice
PDA is a heart problem in which the connection between the aorta and pulmonary artery remains open after birth, instead of closing as it should.
Pericarditis is inflammation or infection of the pericardium, the thin sac that surrounds the heart.
Periodontal diseases, also called gum diseases, are serious bacterial infections that destroy the gums and the surrounding tissues of the mouth.
The head is one of the most fragile parts on your baby, especially after birth. Sometimes, damage can occur, particularly if your baby is born prematurely. One type of brain damage is called periventricular leukomalacia. Read on to better understand what this diagnosis means for you and your baby, and what doctors can do to help.
In this condition, a newborn's circulation changes back to the circulation of a fetus, where much of the blood flow bypasses the lungs.
Children with PDD have difficulty with language, communication, socialization, and motor behaviors. Autism is an example of a PDD.
Detailed information on pharyngitis and tonsillitis, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Detailed information on pheochromocytoma, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Detailed information on phimosis and paraphimosis, including symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Common phobias include fear of animals, blood, heights, closed spaces, or flying. In teens, the fear must last at least six months to be considered a phobia.
Detailed information on physical abnormalities of high-risk newborns
Detailed information on pilomatrixoma, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Detailed information on pityriasis rosea, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
For mothers who breastfeed, some may be more susceptible to plugged ducts than others. Get some quick tips on how to avoid and manage this concern, so you can keep you and your baby happy and healthy!
Pneumococcus bacteria can cause serious illness in children, including pneumonia, infection in the blood, and meningitis.
Detailed information on pneumonia, including different types, diagnosis, and treatment
Pneumothorax is a lung disorder in which air in the lungs leaks out through holes in the lung tissue into the spaces outside the lung airways.
Detailed information on poison ivy/poison oak, including symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention
Detailed information on poisoning, preventing poisoning and how to respond in an emergency
The poliovirus destroys the nervous system, causing paralysis. Today, polio is extremely rare in the United States because of the polio vaccine. It's still common in other countries, though, so children still need to be immunized.
Detailed information on poliomyelitis, including symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention
Detailed information on pollen allergy, also called hay fever, including information on which plants produce the most pollen and allergic rhinitis prevention during pollen season
Detailed information on the different types of polycystic kidney disease, including autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease, and acquired cystic kidney disease
Mild polycythemia may not cause problems, but too many red blood cells can increase the blood volume or thicken the blood, making it harder to circulate through the blood system and to the organs.
Detailed information on posterior pituitary disorders
Detailed information on posterior urethral valves, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
The most common symptoms of postmaturity in a baby are dry, peeling skin; overgrown nails; and abundant scalp hair.
Postpartum hemorrhage is excessive bleeding after the birth of a baby. Most postpartum hemorrhage occurs right after delivery, but it can occur later as well.
Postpartum thyroiditis is a temporary but fairly common condition that results in either an overactive or underactive thyroid.
A pregnancy that lasts more than 42 weeks is considered post-term. Post-term pregnancy is associated with longer labors and the need for cesarean delivery.
A serious accident such as a car wreck, or a natural disaster such as a flood can cause PTSD in a child. Physical or sexual abuse and neglect can be other causes.
Detailed information on precocious puberty, including causes, symptom, diagnosis, and treatment
Detailed information on pregnancy and childbirth, including information on birth statistics, pregnancy planning, preconception care, prenatal care, pregnancy discomforts, pregnancy tests, pregnancy risks, pregnancy warning signs, labor and delivery, breas
Detailed information on the most common complications during pregnancy
Rupture of the membranes near the end of pregnancy may be caused by a natural weakening of the membranes or from the force of contractions.
Other terms often used for prematurity are preterm and "preemie." Many premature babies also weigh less than 5.5 pounds and may be referred to as low birthweight.
Most females experience some unpleasant or uncomfortable symptoms during their menstrual cycle. The type and intensity of symptoms vary.
Detailed information on preschool and school-aged problems of the teeth and mouth
Preterm birth is the greatest problem associated with preterm labor. Although most babies are born after 37 weeks, those born preterm are at increased risks for many complications.
Detailed information on problems affecting the lower digestive tract of children
Detailed information on problems affecting the upper digestive tract of children
Detailed information on problems in prenatal development of the digestive tract
Detailed information on problems in puberty, including precocious puberty, gonadotropin-independent precocious puberty, and delayed puberty
Detailed information on problems involving heart rhythm
Eye disorders in children are either refractive or non-refractive errors. Refractive errors are those caused by the shape of the eye. Non-refractive errors are caused by disease.
Detailed information on prune belly syndrome, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Detailed information on psoriatic arthritis, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Girls experience puberty as a sequence of events, and their pubertal changes usually begin before boys of the same age. The first pubertal change in girls usually is breast development.
Detailed information on puberty and the adolescent male
PA is a serious heart defect in which the pulmonary valve does not allow blood to flow from the heart to the lungs to pick up oxygen.
Pulmonary stenosis affects the leaflets of the pulmonary valve, making it difficult for blood to flow from the right ventricle to the lungs.
A puncture wound is a deep wound made by a sharp object. This type of wound may become infected easily because dirt and germs are carried deep into the tissues.
Pyloric stenosis is a problem that affects babies between 2 and 8 weeks of age and causes forceful vomiting that can lead to dehydration.
Rabies occurs mainly in skunks, raccoons, foxes, coyotes, and bats. In some areas, these wild animals infect domestic cats, dogs, and livestock.
The most common refractive errors in children are nearsightedness, farsightedness, and astigmatism.
Detailed information on renal failure, including symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and diet
RSV is the most common cause of bronchiolitis—inflammation of the lower airways—and pneumonia in babies.
Detailed information on retinoblastoma, including causes, stages, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
A premature baby comes with many special concerns, and eye health is an important one. Some premature babies develop retinopathy of prematurity, or abnormal blood vessel development in the retina of the eye. Learn about this complication and find out why screenings are so important.
Reye syndrome is a rare condition that can affect children between ages 4 and 12. The more common cases occur in conjunction with a previous viral infection, such as the flu or chicken pox.
Rh disease occurs during pregnancy when there is an incompatibility between the blood types of the mother and baby.
Detailed information on rhabdomyosarcoma, including causes, stages, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Detailed information on rheumatic fever, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Rheumatic heart disease is a condition in which permanent damage to heart valves is caused by rheumatic fever.
Detailed information on the most common risks to pregnancy, including information on alcohol and pregnancy, smoking and pregnancy, drugs and pregnancy, medications during pregnancy, and pre-existing conditions and pregnancy
This infection is caused by a tick bite. Common symptoms are fever and a non-itchy rash that usually starts on the hands, arms, feet, and legs seven to 10 days after the bite.
Detailed information on roseola, including cause, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Detailed information on rotavirus, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention
Children are more likely to be infected with roundworms because they are more likely to put their contaminated fingers in their mouths.
Detailed information on rubella, including symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention
Detailed information on measles, including symptoms, complications, prevention, and treatment
Rumination syndrome is a rare disorder in which the child eats meals normally, but after about an hour or two, undigested food comes back up into his or her mouth.
Detailed information on scabies, including symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Detailed information on scarlet fever, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Detailed information on schizophrenia, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention
School phobia can be seen in young children going to school for the first time, in older children who fear a bully or mean teacher, and in children who are anxious about leaving their parents.
Detailed information on scleroderma, including symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Detailed information on scoliosis, including types, causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Scrotal swelling is a common problem seen in young boys and baby boys. It can have many causes. These are usually divided into painless and painful scrotal swelling.
Cradle cap can occur on the scalp, diaper area, face, neck, and trunk. Symptoms include dry or greasy scales.
Second-degree burns involve the outer and middle layers of skin. The burn site appears red and blistered, and may be swollen and painful.
A seizure occurs when parts of the brain receive a burst of abnormal electrical signals that temporarily interrupts normal electrical brain function.
All children and teens experience some anxiety—it's a normal part of growing up. When worries and fears abnormally focus on separation from home or family, the child may have separation anxiety disorder.
Sepsis is a term for severe infection that spreads throughout the body. Sepsis in a newborn is more likely to develop when the mother has had pregnancy complications that increase the likelihood of infection.
Detailed information on infectious arthritis, including symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Detailed information on SARS, including symptoms, prevention, and treatment
Detailed information on severe combined immunodeficiency, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
STDs are among the most common infectious diseases in this country—the United States has the highest rates of STDs in the industrialized world.
Sickle cell disease involves the red blood cells, or hemoglobin, and their ability to carry oxygen.
Detailed information on the signs of respiratory distress
Detailed information on single gene defects and patterns of inheritance
Detailed information on sinusitis, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Sjögren’s syndrome is estimated to be one of the most common autoimmune disorders in the U.S. About 4 million Americans are affected by Sjögren’s syndrome. About 90 percent are women.
Detailed information on skin cancer, including causes, types, risk factors, and prevention
The color of a baby's skin can often help identify possible problems in another area of the body. It is important for you to call your doctor if certain skin color changes occur.
Detailed information on skin injuries, including blisters, burns, sunburn, and bites
Detailed information on the most common types of skin pigment disorders, including albinism, melasma, vitiligo, and skin pigment loss following sun damage
Detailed information on slipped capital femoral epiphysis, including cause, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Are you concerned that your little one has slow or poor weight gain? Unsure? This article will help you sort out your questions and concerns.
Wash the cut area well with soap and water, but do not scrub the wound. A dirty cut or scrape that is not thoroughly cleaned can cause scarring.
Although some babies are small because of genetics (their parents are small), most SGA babies are small because of fetal growth problems that occur during pregnancy.
Treat all bites as if they were from a venomous snake and get your child to a hospital emergency room as quickly as possible.
Detailed information on breastfeeding and sore nipples
Spina bifida can occur in the early weeks of pregnancy, before you even know you are expecting. That’s why your baby is depending on you to have healthy habits in place from the start. Learn more about the prevention and treatment of this birth defect.
Spinal muscular atrophy is a genetic disease that affects the spinal cord and nerves, resulting in muscle wasting and weakness.
A splinter is a sharp sliver of wood, glass, or other debris that is lodged underneath the skin. Removal of small, superficial splinters can usually be done at home.
Detailed information on sports injuries in children, including overuse injuries, sprains, strains, and heat-related illnesses
Strains, sprains, and bruises make up the majority of sports injuries. Treatment for a strain or sprain depends on the child's age and the extent of the injury.
Detailed information on staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome, including symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Stillbirth is a common term for death of a baby while still in the uterus. Common causes are high blood pressure or infection in the mother, or placental or cord problems.
Detailed information on ulcers, including causes, diagnosis, and treatment
Detailed information on stridor, including causes, diagnosis, and treatment
Stroke is much more common in adults than children, but children get strokes, too. The good news is that a child has a better ability to recover from stoke than an adult because a child's brain is still developing.
Detailed information on structural abnormalities, including chromosome deletions and duplications
Stuttering may occur in a child with normal developmental speech problems who is pressured to speak better. The child's struggle to improve speech actually makes the problem worse.
A stye is caused by an infection in the oil-producing or sweat glands in the eyelid. The infection is usually caused by bacteria called Staphylococcus aureus.
Substances frequently abused by adolescents include alcohol, marijuana, and amphetamines. Some teens are at higher risk of developing substance-related disorders.
Detailed information on substance exposure of newborns
SIDS stands for sudden infant death syndrome. It is a leading cause of infant death in the U.S. The causes of SIDS are unknown, but researchers have learned more about factors that can put your baby at risk. Learn which ones parents can prevent.
Protect your child from the sun. Up to 80 percent of total lifetime sun exposure occurs in the first 18 years of life.
Children are more likely to end up with a cut or scrape on the head or face. One reason is that children's sense of balance isn't completely adjusted.
Detailed information on syncope, also called fainting, including causes, symptoms, diagnostic, and treatment information
Detailed information on syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Lupus is a disease characterized by periodic episodes of inflammation of and damage to the joints, tendons, other connective tissues, and organs.
Suicide is the third leading cause of death in 15- to 24-year-olds. The strongest risk factors for attempted suicide in youth are depression, substance abuse, and aggressive or disruptive behaviors.
During adolescence, blood sugar levels become harder to control, resulting in levels that swing from too low to too high.
A baby's first tooth usually appears between 5 and 7 months of age. Often, the two middle bottom teeth come through the gums first, followed by the middle four upper teeth.
These fits of rage—the stomping, screaming, and falling on the floor—are a normal part of childhood development. Temper tantrums often occur only with a parent. They are a way for the child to communicate his or her feelings.
Tennis elbow is a repetitive stress injury of the elbow that occurs when the muscles and tendons in the elbow area are torn or damaged.
Detailed information on testicular torsion, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Tetanus is an acute, sometimes fatal, disease of the central nervous system, caused by the toxin of the tetanus bacterium, which usually enters the body through an open wound.
Tetralogy of Fallot is a complex condition of several congenital heart defects.
A healthy first trimester is crucial to the normal development of your baby. You may not be showing much on the outside, but inside, all the major body organs and systems of the fetus are forming.
During this trimester, the weight of your growing baby will multiply more than seven times—and you will start showing more.
The third trimester marks the home stretch for your pregnancy. You may feel more uncomfortable now as you continue to gain weight. You also may have false labor contractions (called Braxton-Hicks contractions).
Detailed information on thermal injuries in children
This type of burn destroys the top two layers of skin. Treatment for third-degree burns depends on the amount of body surface area affected.
Thrombocytopenia is a condition in which a baby has too few platelets—the blood cells needed for clotting.
Candidiasis is an infection caused by yeast on the skin and mucous membranes. When the infection occurs in the mouth, it is called thrush.
Thumb sucking is normal in infants and young children. It shouldn't cause any permanent problems if your child stops by age 5.
Detailed information on thyroglossal duct cyst, including cause, symptom, diagnosis, and treatment
Tibial torsion causes a child's feet to turn inward, or to have what is also known as a "pigeon-toed" appearance.
Detailed information on the most common types of ringworm, including diagnosis and treatment
Detailed information on tinea versicolor, including symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Detailed information on toddler problems of the teeth and mouth
Tooth decay first appears as white spots on the teeth. The cavity then turns a light brown color and progressively becomes darker.
Detailed information on toothache, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Detailed information on pregnancy and childbirth, including information on birth statistics, pregnancy planning, preconception care, prenatal care, pregnancy discomforts, pregnancy tests, pregnancy risks, pregnancy warning signs, labor and delivery, breas
In this condition, the four pulmonary veins are connected somewhere besides the left atrium.
A person with Tourette's disorder develops multiple repeated tics. The tics are abrupt, purposeless, and involuntary vocal sounds or muscular jerks.
Detailed information on toxic epidermal necrolysis, including symptoms and treatment
Detailed information on toxic shock syndrome, including symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention
Toxoplasmosis is not only harmful to moms-to-be, but also to their unborn babies. If you haven’t heard of toxoplasmosis, you’ll definitely want to brush up on this new word.
Detailed information on tracheoesophageal fistula and esophageal atresia, including symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Transient tachypnea of the newborn is a term for a mild respiratory problem of babies that begins after birth and lasts about three days.
Detailed information on translocation Down syndrome
Detailed information on chromosome translocations, including reciprocal translation and Robertsonian translocation
Because of abnormal development of the fetal heart, the large vessels that take blood away from the heart to the lungs, or to the body, are improperly connected.
Detailed information on neurological trauma in children
Most people who have a trichomoniasis infection don’t have symptoms. If symptoms occur, they may begin anywhere from a few days to months after infection.
In tricuspid atresia, the tricuspid valve, normally located between the right atrium and the right ventricle, does not develop properly.
Detailed information on trinucleotide repeats, including fragile X syndrome
Trisomy 18 and trisomy 13 are genetic disorders that present a combination of birth defects including severe mental retardation, as well as health problems involving nearly every organ system in the body.
Truncus arteriosus occurs when the aorta and the pulmonary artery fail to separate completely during fetal development.
Detailed information on tuberculosis, including risks, symptoms, causes, diagnosis, and treatment
Turner syndrome is a genetic disorder seen in girls that causes them to be shorter than others and to not mature sexually as they grow into adulthood.
Type 1 diabetes usually develops in children or young adults, but can start at any age.
Type 2 diabetes is a metabolic disorder resulting from the body's inability to produce enough, or to properly use, insulin.
Detailed information on the different types of chromosome abnormality
Genetic diseases are classified by type: chromosomal abnormalities, single gene defects, problems caused by exposure to certain substances, or a combination of these.
Detailed information on ulcerative colitis, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Detailed information on Addison's disease, including symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Detailed information on undescended testes, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Detailed information on uniparental disomy
The common cold is one of the most common illnesses, leading to more doctor visits and absences from school each year than any other illness.
Detailed information on ureterocele and ureteral duplication, including causes, diagnosis, and treatment
Enuresis is the medical term for bedwetting, or accidental urination in children who should be able to control their bladder. Girls usually have bladder control before boys do. The diagnosis of enuresis is for girls older than 5 and for boys older than 6.
During pregnancy, the kidney enlarges and the bladder is compressed by the growing uterus. These and other factors make it more likely for a woman to develop a urinary tract infection.
Detailed information on urinary tract infections, including causes, symptom, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention
Detailed information on urticaria, also called hives, including what food and medicines commonly cause hives
Chickenpox is a very common childhood disease. It is usually mild, but can be serious, especially in young infants and adults.
Varicoceles are enlargements of veins in the scrotum. Varicoceles most often occur during puberty and affect as many as 10 to 15 percent of all boys.
Detailed information on the most common types of vasculitis, including Kawasaki Disease and Henoch-Schönlein Purpura
A ventricular septal defect is an opening in the dividing wall between the two lower chambers of the heart known as the right and left ventricles.
Very low birthweight is a term used to describe babies who are born weighing less than 3 pounds, 4 ounces. Only a few babies are born this tiny.
Detailed information on vesicoureteral reflux, including cause, symptom, diagnosis, and treatment
Detailed information on viral exanthems (rashes)
Detailed information on viral skin infections, including Herpes Zoster (Shingles), Pityriasis Rosea, Warts, and Molluscum Contagiosum
Detailed information on viruses, bacteria, and parasites in the digestive tract
Detailed information on vision and hearing in newborns
Hemorrhagic disease of the newborn is a bleeding problem that occurs during the first few days of life.
Von Willebrand disease (VWD) is an inherited disorder that affects the blood’s ability to clot. People with VWD may experience heavy bleeding after an injury, leading to physical damage or even death.
is extremely common in school-aged children. It's the most common cause of pneumonia in this age group.
Detailed information on the most common types of warts, including foot warts, flat warts, genital warts, and filiform warts
Wegener’s granulomatosis is a condition of the immune system that causes swelling and irritation in blood vessels and other tissues. This inflammation reduces or stops the flow of blood to organs in the body.
Detailed information on West Nile virus, including symptoms, prevention, and treatment
If one of your blood vessels gets damaged, it sends out signals that are picked up by platelets. The platelets then rush to the site of damage and form a plug, or clot, to repair the damage.
Red blood cells play an important role in your health by carrying fresh oxygen throughout the body. The oxygen gives your blood its bright red color.
Stem cells are special human cells that have the ability to develop into many different cell types, from muscle cells to brain cells. In some cases, they also have the ability to repair damaged tissues.
Think of white blood cells as your immunity cells. In a sense, they are continually at war. They flow through your bloodstream to battle viruses, bacteria, and other foreign invaders that threaten your health.
White blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets are essential to body function, but plasma also plays a crucial, and mostly unrecognized, job, carrying these blood components throughout the body as the fluid in which they travel.
Talk with your baby’s health care provider about being present as much as possible for the test or procedure. Child development experts say it’s best to keep to a minimum the amount of time your child is separated from you at this age.
By age 7 or 8, school-aged children are starting to develop coping skills as they think more logically and begin to understand cause and effect—if this happens, then that may happen. This way of thinking helps them find ways to cope with scary or stressful experiences.
During the adolescent years, abstract thinking begins and teens can fully understand how parts of the body function, the medical problem he or she is experiencing, and the reason for the test, procedure, or surgery.
Your toddler or preschooler is able to grasp on some level what is going on if you keep explanations simple and short.
Whooping cough, or pertussis, mainly affects infants and young children. It is characterized by intense coughing spells that end with a characteristic whoop as air is inhaled.
Detailed information on Wilms tumor, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Detailed information on X-linked agammaglobulinemia, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Detailed information on x-linked dominant inheritance
Detailed information on x-linked recessive inheritance