OHSU Health Information Library Topics
Arthritis, itself a group of more than 100 different diseases, is one category of rheumatic diseases.
Joints are the areas where two or more bones meet. Most joints are mobile, allowing the bones to move.
A typical bone in your body contains three types of tissue—a hard outer tissue, a sponge-like inner tissue, and smooth tissue at the ends.
The elbow is a hinge joint between the humerus bone in the upper arm and the radius and ulnar bones in the lower arm.
Your feet are susceptible to many stresses. Foot pain and problems can cause pain, inflammation, or injury.
Each of your hands has three types of bones: phalanges in your fingers; metacarpals in your mid-hand, and carpals in your wrist.
The knee is a vulnerable joint that bears a lot of stress from everyday activities such as lifting and from high-impact activities such as jogging.
The pelvis is a basin-shaped structure that supports the spinal column and protects the abdominal organs.
The shoulder is a complex joint with several layers, including bones, ligaments, tendons, and muscles.
Your backbone, also called the vertebral column, is made up of 33 vertebrae separated by spongy disks.
Detailed information on ankylosing spondylitis, including symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Rheumatic diseases are the leading cause of disability among people ages 65 and older.
Orthopedic surgeons use arthroscopy to diagnose and treat joint problems. An arthroscope is a small, tube shaped instrument that is used to look inside a joint.
Detailed information on avascular necrosis, including causes, risk factors, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Detailed information on the most common benign bone tumors, including chondroblastoma, enchondroma, giant cell tumor, and osteochondroma
A bone density test measures the strength and density of your bones as you approach menopause and, when the test is repeated sometime later, can help determine how quickly you are losing bone mass and density.
A bursa is a fluid-filled sac that cushions a joint. When a bursa becomes inflamed, the condition is known as bursitis.
Women develop carpal tunnel syndrome three times more frequently than men. It usually occurs only in adults.
The outside of a cast can be made of plaster or fiberglass. Cotton and synthetic materials line the inside of the cast to make it soft and to provide padding around bony areas, such as the wrist or elbow.
A chondroblastoma is a rare type of benign bone tumor that originates from cartilage.
Chondrosarcoma is a malignant type of bone cancer that primarily affects the cartilage cells of the femur, arm, pelvis, knee, and spine.
Chronic pain is longstanding pain that persists beyond the usual recovery period or occurs along with a chronic health condition, such as arthritis.
Detailed information on clubfoot, including causes, risk factors, diagnosis, treatment, and cast care
Detailed information on computed tomography scans, also called CT scan or CAT scan, including information on how the procedure is performed
When one of those precious little hands isn’t as perfectly formed as it should be, an early visit to a hand surgeon should be at the top of your agenda for your newborn.
Congenital limb defects occur when a portion or the entire upper or lower limb fails to form normally when the baby is developing in the uterus.
Hold the top part of the crutch firmly between the chest and the inside of the upper arm. Do not allow the top of the crutch to push up into the armpit. It is possible to damage nerves and blood vessels with constant pressure.
Cubital tunnel syndrome feels similar to the pain that occurs from hitting the "funny" bone in your elbow. The condition may occur if you frequently bend your elbows, constantly lean on your elbows, or sustain a direct injury to the area.
Dehydration and heat stroke are two very common heat-related diseases that can be life threatening if left untreated.
Detailed information on developmental dysplasia of the hip, including causes, symptoms, risk factors, diagnosis, treatment, and cast care
Diagnosing arthritis and other rheumatic diseases is often difficult, as many symptoms are similar among the different diseases.
In some cases, a diagnosis can be made simply based on a physical examination. In other cases, though, tests may be needed to help confirm the diagnosis.
A dislocation occurs when extreme force is put on a ligament, allowing the ends of two connected bones to separate. Ligaments are flexible bands of fibrous tissue that connect various bones and cartilage.
This disease usually begins with a thickening of the skin in the palm of the hand. This may develop into a hard lump or thick band that eventually causes the fingers to contract.
Detailed information on elbow pain and problems
Enchondromas are the most common type of hand tumor. Although they may affect people of any age, they are most common between ages 10 and 20.
To help the orthopedist determine your treatment, you'll need a physical exam, a medical history profile, and a description of symptoms.
Detailed information on Ewing sarcoma, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Ewing sarcoma can occur in any bone, but is most often found in the extremities and can involve muscle and the soft tissues around the tumor site.
Exercise is good for people of all ages. It helps lower blood pressure, reduces the risks for falls and serious injuries, and slows the body's loss of muscle and bone mass.
You don't have to exercise for long periods of time—or even vigorously—to become fit. You do need to aim for at least 30 minutes of moderate activity most days of the week.
Femoral anteversion is an inward twisting of the thigh bone. It is typically detected when a child is 4 to 6 years old.
Detailed information on fibromyalgia, including cause, triggers, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Fibrous dysplasia is a chronic disorder in which bone expands because of abnormal development of fibrous tissue.
Foot pain is often caused by improper foot function. Improperly fitted shoes can worsen and, in some cases, cause foot problems.
A fracture is a partial or complete break in the bone. When a fracture occurs, it is classified as either open or closed.
Fractures occur when more force is applied to the bone than the bone can absorb. Bones are weakest when they are twisted.
Giant cell tumors most often appear in the knee, but they can also involve the bones of the arms and the legs, or the flat bones such as the breastbone or pelvis.
Glossary of terms relating to orthopedics
Gout is marked by inflamed, painful joints because of the formation of crystal deposits in them.
Common hand problems include arthritis, carpal tunnel syndrome, and ganglion cysts.
Children and teens are at greater risk for heat-related illnesses for several reasons. They adjust more slowly to changes in air temperature. They also produce more heat with activity and sweat less.
A hip fracture is classified by the specific area of the break and the type of break(s) in the bone. It is a serious injury and requires immediate medical attention.
Detailed information on the most common types of hip problems, including arthritis, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, traumatic arthritis, avascular necrosis, bursitis, trochanteric bursa, ischial bursa, and hip pointer
This surgery may be considered as treatment after a hip fracture or for someone who has severe arthritis.
It can sometimes be confusing whether to use heat or cold when treating sore muscles or an injury. Here are facts to keep in mind.
Infectious arthritis is an infection in the joint fluid and tissues. Different bacteria and viruses can infect a joint and usually are associated with a person's age.
Joint replacement is a surgical procedure to remove and replace an arthritic or damaged joint with an artificial joint, called a prosthesis.
Detailed information on juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, including cause, symptom, diagnosis, and treatment
Common knee problems include sprains, strains, torn cartilage, and arthritis.
When a knee is severely damaged by disease or injury, an artificial knee replacement may be considered.
Kyphosis is a forward curvature of the spine. It is a type of spinal deformity and should not be confused with poor posture.
The pain of tennis elbow is caused by damage to the tendons that bend the wrist backward away from the palm.
This disease is a temporary condition that causes the hip joint to become painful and stiff.
The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is one of the most common ligaments to be injured. Learn about the four major ligaments of the knee.
With proper management, a rheumatic disease often does not have to hinder your daily activities.
A spine affected by lordosis has a curve in the vertebrae in the lower back area, giving the child a "swayback" appearance.
Low back pain can range from mild, dull, and annoying to persistent, severe, and disabling pain. Pain in the lower back can restrict mobility and interfere with normal functioning.
A lumbar strain is an injury to the lower back, which results in damaged tendons and muscles that spasm and feel sore.
Detailed information on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), including information on how the procedure is performed
Other activities that can cause this condition include carrying a heavy suitcase, chopping wood, and using a chainsaw.
Metatarsus adductus is a common foot deformity noted at birth that causes the front half of the foot, or forefoot, to turn inward.
Myeloma bone disease is cancer that affects certain white blood cells called plasma cells.
Muscular dystrophy causes the muscles in the body to become very weak. The muscles break down and are replaced with fatty deposits over time.
The goal of musculoskeletal rehab is to help you return to the highest level of function and independence possible.
Neck pain can result from many different causes—injury to muscles, tendons, or ligaments; arthritis; a herniated disc; or a tumor.
Nursemaid's elbow occurs when the radius—one of the bones in the forearm—slips out of place from where it normally attaches to the elbow joint.
List of online resources to find additional information on orthopedics
Detailed information on orthopedic disorders in children, including fractures, sports injuries, overuse injuries, sprains, strains, and heat-related illness
Treatment for a bone disorder depends on several factors, including your age and health, the extent of the disease, and your tolerance for certain procedures and medications.
Osgood-Schlatter disease is an overuse condition or injury of the knee that causes pain and swelling below the knee area over the shin bone.
Osteoarthritis, the most common form of arthritis, is a chronic, degenerative, joint disease that affects mostly middle-aged and older adults.
Osteochondroma is an overgrowth of cartilage and bone near the end of the bone near the growth plate.
Osteogenesis imperfecta is also known as brittle-bone disease because it is characterized by bones that break easily without a specific cause.
Osteogenesis imperfecta is also known as brittle-bone disease because it is characterized by bones that break easily without a specific cause.
Osteomyelitis is an inflammation or swelling of bone tissue that is usually the result of an infection.
Detailed information on osteomyelitis, including symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Osteoporosis causes a loss of bone mass and destruction of bone tissue. The bones most often affected are the hips, spine, and wrists.
Osteosarcoma usually affects the long bones around the knee. It occurs most often in children, adolescents, and young adults.
Detailed information on osteosarcoma, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Detailed information on overuse injuries in children, including jumper's knee, patellar tendonitis, little leaguers' elbow, little leaguers' shoulder, osteochondritis dissecans, Sever's disease, shin splints, Sinding-Larsen-Johansson disease, spondylolisthesis, and spondylolysis
Many different types of surgeries can be performed on the hand, depending on the underlying cause of the problem.
Paget disease is the most common bone disorder after osteoporosis in people older than 50.
Jumper's knee is also known as patellar tendonitis. It may be caused by overuse of the knee joint, such as frequent jumping on hard surfaces.
Runner's knee occurs when the kneecap rubs against the thighbone as it moves. The condition can be caused by a structural defect or a certain way of walking or running.
Detailed information on the most common pelvis problems, including pelvic fractures and osteitis pubis
Good preventive steps: Warm up before you work out, alternate days for exercising certain muscle groups, and cool down when you're done.
Psoriatic arthritis is a form of arthritis associated with psoriasis, a chronic skin and nail disease.
This disorder affects blood flow to the fingers and less frequently to the ears, toes, nipples, knees, or nose. Exposure to cold and emotional upset are the triggers.
Reactive arthritis, also known as Reiter's syndrome, is a type of arthritis that occurs as a reaction to an infection somewhere in the body.
Detailed information on rheumatoid arthritis, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
An injury to the rotator cuff, such as a tear, may happen suddenly when falling on an outstretched hand or develop over time because of repetitive activities.
Sciatica is a pain that originates along the sciatic nerve, which extends from the back of the pelvis down the back of the thigh.
Scleroderma is a chronic, degenerative disease that can lead to scarring of the skin, joints, and other internal organs.
Detailed information on scoliosis, including types, causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Detailed information on infectious arthritis, including symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Shin splints involve damage to one of two groups of muscles along the shin bone that cause pain. The location of the shin splint pain depends on which group of muscles is damaged.
The shoulder joint is the most frequently dislocated major joint of the body—often caused by a significant force that separates the shoulder joint's ball away from the joint's socket.
Detailed information on shoulder pain and the most common types of shoulder problems
Shoulder tendonitis often occurs in sports that require the arm to move over the head repeatedly, such as in baseball, weight lifting, and racket sports.
Detailed information on slipped capital femoral epiphysis, including cause, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Detailed information on the most common types of soft-tissue injuries
Stress fractures are weak spots or small cracks in the bone caused by continuous overuse. They often occur in the foot after training for basketball, running, and other sports.
Detailed information on sports safety, including safety gear and equipment
Detailed information on sports injuries in children
Because they are still growing, children are more susceptible to sports injuries. Half of those injuries could be prevented with proper safety gear, safer playing environments, and established safety rules.
What is a contusion? A sprain? A strain? Find out more about these common sports injuries.
Strains, sprains, and bruises make up the majority of sports injuries. Treatment for a strain or sprain depends on the child's age and the extent of the injury.
Most people who have lupus are young women. The effects of the disease can range from mild to severe.
Tendonitis is an inflammation of a tendon—the tough cord of tissue that connects muscles to bones. Tendonitis can affect any tendon, but is most commonly seen in the wrist and fingers.
Tennis elbow is a repetitive stress injury of the elbow that occurs when the muscles and tendons in the elbow area are torn or damaged.
Members of your treatment team may include an orthopedic surgeon, a rheumatologist, and a physical therapist.
Tibial torsion causes a child's feet to turn inward, or to have what is also known as a "pigeon-toed" appearance.
Meniscus tears can occur during a rotating movement while bearing weight, such as when twisting the upper leg while the foot stays in one place during sports and other activities.
Torticollis is a spasm of the neck muscles. It is usually caused by vigorous movement or injury—or by sleeping in an awkward position.
Detailed information on the most common treatments used for arthritis
Detailed illustrations of various types of orthopaedic fractures
Whiplash is an injury caused by the neck bending forcibly forward and then backward, or vice versa. The injury usually involves the muscles, discs, nerves, and tendons in the neck.
Detailed information on x-ray, including information on how the procedure is performed