OHSU Health Information Library Topics
Breast cancer in men is rare—less than 1 percent of all breast carcinomas occur in men.
Tamoxifen has been used to treat both advanced and early stage breast cancer. More recently, tamoxifen is being used as an additional therapy following primary treatment for early stage breast cancer.
Taxol, or paclitaxel, is a drug used for treating certain women who have advanced breast or ovarian cancer. Paclitaxel is a compound that is extracted from the bark of the Pacific yew tree.
Detailed information on actinic keratosis, including causes and treatment
Detailed information on acute lymphocytic leukemia, including symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Detailed information on acute myelogenous leukemia, including symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Detailed information on adrenal gland tumors and pheochromocytoma, including symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
The female pelvic area contains a number of organs and structures: the endometrium, uterus, ovaries, cervix, vagina, and vulva.
A typical bone in your body contains three types of tissue—a hard outer tissue, a sponge-like inner tissue, and smooth tissue at the ends.
The brain is an important organ that controls thought, memory, emotion, touch, motor skills, vision, respiration, temperature, hunger, and every process that regulates your body.
Each breast has 15 to 20 sections (lobes), which are arranged like the petals of a daisy. Each lobe has many smaller lobules, which end in dozens of tiny bulbs that can produce milk.
The prostate gland is about the size of a walnut and surrounds the neck of a man’s bladder and urethra—the tube that carries urine from the bladder.
The respiratory system includes the nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, and lungs.
The skin is the body's largest organ. It serves as a protective shield against heat, light, injury, and infection.
Detailed anatomical description of the urinary system, including simple definitions and labeled, full-color illustrations
Chemotherapy can damage your body’s ability to make red blood cells, so body tissues do not get enough oxygen, a condition called anemia. People who have anemia may feel very weak or tired, dizzy, faint, or short of breath, or may feel that their hearts are beating very fast.
Sometimes called antiangiogenic therapy, this treatment may prevent the growth of cancer by blocking the formation of new blood vessels.
Treatment for cancer, as well as the cancer itself, can affect your sense of taste or smell. You may find that many foods seem to have less taste. Other foods, especially meat or other high-protein foods, may taste bitter or metallic.
Art, dance, music—all are examples of mind-body therapy. Although these therapies do not cure cancer, they provide an outlet for emotions and can improve mental and physical well-being.
The risk for breast cancer may be increased for women who carry the A-T gene. Ataxia telangiectasia is a rare childhood disease that affects the nervous system and other body systems.
A mutation is a change in a gene that prevents it from working properly. We inherit mutations from our parents in specific ways, one of which is called autosomal dominant inheritance.
This type of genetic inheritance means that both copies of the gene must have a mutation for a person to have the trait. One copy of the mutation is inherited from the mother, and the other from the father. A person who has only one recessive gene mutation is a "carrier" for the trait or disease, but he or she does not have any health problems from carrying this one mutation.
Detailed information on basal cell carcinoma, including risk factors and how the disease develops
The risk for ovarian cancer and skin cancer is increased with basal cell nevus syndrome, a rare genetic disorder.
Located almost in the center of the chest, the adult human heart is about the size of two fists held side-by-side.
Testing methods vary from laboratory to laboratory and may affect the likelihood that the lab will identify a mutation in the gene if one is present. Different laboratory studies have the ability to detect different types of mutations. Accuracy will vary, depending upon the type of genetic testing method performed.
Detailed information on biliary cirrhosis and bile duct cancer, including symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Biofeedback is a technique used to train your mind to control the way your body works. It does not appear to affect cancer cells, but it has helped patients reduce severity and occurrence of headaches and chronic pain.
Detailed information on biopsy, including the most common types of biopsy such as endoscopic biopsy, bone marrow biopsy, excisional biopsy, incisional biopsy, fine needle aspiration biopsy, punch biopsy, shave biopsy, and skin biopsy
Detailed information on bladder cancer, including symptoms, types, causes, risk factors, prevention, diagnosis, and treatment
Detailed information on side effects of chemotherapy, including platelet count, and bleeding
Nearly all chemotherapy agents suppress the bone marrow, and that, in turn, causes a reduction in the number of blood cells. This raises the risk for anemia, infection, bleeding, and bruising.
Detailed information on bone marrow transplant, including preparation, types of transplant, transplant team, and possible procedure-related complications or side effects
A brain tumor is an abnormal growth of tissue in the brain. The tumor can either originate in the brain itself or come from another part of the body and travel to the brain.
Brain tumors are the most common solid tumors in children. Brain tumors that occur in infants and children are very different from adult brain tumors, both in terms of the type of cells and the responsiveness to treatment.
BCPT was a clinical trial that studied tamoxifen as a prevention therapy for those at high risk for breast cancer. Data showed the results of tamoxifen treatment to be "highly significant," with a 49 percent reduction in the number of invasive breast cancers seen across all age groups.
Breast cancer ranks second among cancer deaths in women after lung cancer.
Breast reconstruction surgery involves creating a breast mound that comes as close as possible to the form and appearance of the natural breast.
Oncology clinics usually offer several pain management options for any procedure that may be painful, such as a bone marrow aspiration or lumbar puncture.
Imaging—X-rays, CT scans, MRIs—is a process that produces pictures of body structures and organs. It is used to detect tumors and other abnormalities, to determine the extent of disease, and to evaluate the effectiveness of treatment.
Cancer cells don't function properly, and they can spread to many areas of the body. Tumors are clusters of cells that are capable of growing and dividing uncontrollably; their growth is not regulated.
Your cancer treatment may involve several types of health care professionals who, with you, form the "cancer care team."
Cardiac sarcoma is a rare type of cancerous tumor that occurs in the heart.
Cervical cancer develops from abnormal cells on the surface of the cervix that spread deeper or to other tissues or organs. This type of cancer occurs most often in women older than 40.
Your oncologist will determine how long and how often you will have chemotherapy treatments. Chemotherapy can be administered intravenously or by pill, and is usually a combination of drugs.
Chemotherapy may be used when the cancer has spread outside of the prostate gland, or it may be used in combination with other therapies.
Because anticancer drugs are made to kill growing cells, they also affect normal, fast-growing cells such as blood cells forming in the bone marrow and cells in the digestive tract, reproductive system, and hair follicles. Some anticancer drugs may affect cells of vital organs, such as the heart, kidney, bladder, lungs, and nervous system.
Chondrosarcoma is a malignant type of bone cancer that primarily affects the cartilage cells of the femur, arm, pelvis, knee, and spine.
The My Plate plan can help you eat a variety of foods while encouraging the right amount of calories and fat.
Detailed information on chronic lymphocytic leukemia, including symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Detailed information on chronic myelogenous leukemia, including symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Several clinical trials to evaluate prostate cancer have been completed or are currently underway.
Most people who have colorectal cancer are older than 50. This type of cancer is also associated with a diet high in fat and calories and low in fiber.
Be sure to drink plenty of fluids to help loosen the bowels. If you do not have mouth sores, try warm and hot fluids, including water, to help provide relief from constipation symptoms.
Sometimes, cancer cannot be cured. When that is the case, patients and families are faced with complex emotions and a variety of end of life issues.
Learn as much as possible about your disease. Arm yourself with information in order to lessen frustration. Don't hesitate to ask questions about your disease. Consider keeping a notebook with all of the medical records and information about your diagnosis.
The risk for breast cancer, gastrointestinal cancers, and thyroid cancer is increased with Cowden syndrome, a rare genetic disorder.
Detailed information on cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, including symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Each cell in your body contains about 25,000 genes, which determine your hair color, your height, and other characteristics that make you unique.
Cancers develop because of alterations, or mutations, in genes that normally promote controlled cell growth. Most cancers are caused by mutations that occur only in the tissue that is affected by the cancer.
Detailed information on diagnosis and staging of melanoma, including use of excisional biopsy, incisional biopsy, fine needle aspiration biopsy, punch biopsy, shave biopsy, and skin biopsy
It is important to remember that a lump or other changes in the breast, or an abnormal area on a mammogram, may be caused by cancer or by other, less serious problems.
Your physician may prescribe a medication to control your symptoms, and/or, if symptoms persist, you may need fluid replacement intravenously (IV). It is possible to replace these fluids intravenously on an outpatient basis. When you are having chemotherapy, you should not take any over-the-counter medications for diarrhea without first consulting your physician.
No dietary changes have been found to cure cancer, but good nutrition is an essential part of your treatment plan. Talk with your doctor or a registered dietitian before trying any dietary supplements.
Distraction does not cure cancer, but it helps push patients’ minds away from unpleasant thoughts, procedures, and pain.
The American Society of Clinical Oncology recommends that genetic testing for cancer be offered when families have a well-defined inherited cancer where the test result will affect medical care.
Detailed information on the effects of ultraviolet light and the increased risk of skin cancer, premature aging, cataracts, and immune system damage
Cancer of the endometrium is a disease in which cancerous cells are found in the lining of the uterus. It is highly curable when found early.
An endoscope is a small, flexible tube with a light and a lens on the end used to look into the esophagus, stomach, duodenum, colon, or rectum. It can also be used to take tissue from the body for testing or to take color photographs of the inside of the body.
Enteral nutrition is nutrition given through tube feedings, as a supplement or as the sole source of nutrients. Parenteral nutrition is a special mixture of glucose, protein, fat, vitamins, and minerals given through an IV.
Detailed information on esophageal cancer, including symptoms, stages, types, risk factors, diagnosis, and treatment
Detailed information on Ewing sarcoma, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Ewing sarcoma can occur in any bone, but is most often found in the extremities and can involve muscle and the soft tissues around the tumor site.
Detailed information on the health benefits of exercise, including how to calculate your target heart rate zone and basic exercise guidelines
Statistics relating to skin cancer
FAP is a syndrome characterized by a large number of benign polyps in the colon and rectum. Without treatment, a person with FAP has a nearly 100 percent risk of colorectal cancer.
A family medical history helps determine whether relatives have an increased chance of developing specific types of cancer, how great the risk of cancer might be, and whether genetic testing might be useful.
What can you do to help the man in your life with prostate cancer? Keep the lines of communication open.
Timing your mammogram when your breasts are not tender is important. In premenopausal women, this is usually one week after a menstrual period.
This national program encourages Americans to eat more fruits and vegetables, aiming for five to nine servings a day.
Ductal carcinoma, lobular carcinoma, and Paget's disease are several types of breast cancer.
You may have difficulty eating or lose your appetite during cancer treatment. Try eating small, frequent meals instead of three large ones. To improve your appetite, don't drink beverages with your meals.
If you have a family history of multiple cases of the same or related types of cancer, you may need genetic counseling. Generally, you can find genetic counseling and other genetic services at large hospitals or medical centers.
Detailed information on germ cell tumors, including causes, types, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Glossary of terms relating to cancer
The cancer grading system is based on a number range. The lower the number, the lower the grade, and the slower the cancer is growing.
People often choose to wear wigs, scarves, or hats while or after losing their hair. If this is what you would like to do, pick them out ahead of time and start wearing them before your hair is completely gone.
Detailed information on hepatoblastoma, including causes, stages, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Talk with your health care provider before using any type of dietary or herbal supplements in the treatment or prevention of prostate cancer.
A woman with this syndrome may develop breast cancer before age 50 and is at higher risk for developing cancer in both breasts or in both the breasts and ovaries.
Detailed information on Hodgkin's lymphoma, including symptoms, causes, diagnosis, and treatment
Detailed information on Hodgkin's lymphoma, including causes, symptoms, staging, diagnosis, and treatment
With some cancers, patients are given hormone therapy as soon as cancer is diagnosed, before any other treatment. It may shrink a tumor, or it may halt the advance of the disease. In some cancers, such as prostate cancer, hormone therapy helps ease the painful and distressing symptoms of advanced disease.
The goal of hormone therapy is to lower the level of male hormones in the body, particularly testosterone.
Hospice care usually involves relieving symptoms and providing psychological and social support for the patient and family. The goal of hospice care is to provide the terminally ill patient peace, comfort, and dignity.
Genes that have alterations, or mutations, can cause cells to become cancerous. Some mutations are inherited and others are "acquired," occurring by chance over time.
By doing BSE regularly, you get to know how your breasts normally feel so that you are more apt to detect any change.
Heat therapy may help shrink tumors by damaging cells or depriving them of the substances they need to live. Research studies are underway to determine the use and effectiveness of hyperthermia in cancer treatment.
Many families want their loved ones to die at home in their natural and most comfortable setting. Others do not feel they can emotionally handle the death in their home. Include all family members in this important decision.
To reduce your risk for infection, avoid people who are sick with contagious illnesses, including colds, the flu, measles, or chickenpox.
Detailed information on renal cell cancer, the most common type of kidney cancer, including symptoms, causes, diagnosis, and treatment
Lab tests are used in cancer diagnosis to look for tumor markers. These are substances either released by cancer cells into the blood or urine or substances created by the body in response to cancer cells.
Detailed information on laryngeal cancer (cancer of the larynx), including symptoms, cause, risk factors, diagnosis, and treatment
Laser therapy can be used to cut a very tiny area to remove very small cancers without damaging surrounding tissue. Lasers also are used to apply heat to tumors in order to shrink them and are sometimes used with drugs that are activated by laser light to kill cancer cells.
Detailed information on leukemia in childhood, including symptoms, staging, diagnosis, and treatment
Li-Fraumeni syndrome raises the risk for breast cancer and many other types of cancer.
Detailed information on liver transplantation, including donor lists, organ rejection, details of the procedure, and long-term outlook following a liver transplant
Detailed information on liver tumors, including types, symptoms, staging, diagnosis, and treatment
Detailed information on lung cancer, lung cancer symptom, lung cancer treatment, lung cancer sign, lung cancer medication, malignant lung tumor, lung cancer cause, benign lung tumor, lung cancer risk factor, lung cancer prevention
Whenever the normal drainage pattern in the lymph nodes is disturbed or damaged—often during surgery to remove the lymph nodes—the arm may swell. This swelling, caused by too much fluid, is called lymphedema.
Mucositis can be a very troublesome and painful side effect of chemotherapy. Common symptoms include diarrhea and abdominal cramping or tenderness.
This rare type of thyroid cancer has several forms, depending on the mutations that cause it. Most cases of medullary thyroid cancer, though, are sporadic—they occur without any family history of thyroid cancer.
Detailed information on melanoma, including symptoms, diagnosis, risk factors, and treatment
Detailed information on merkel cell cancer, including diagnosis and treatment
Multifactorial inheritance means that many factors are involved in causing a health problem. The factors are usually both genetic and environmental, where a combination of genes from both parents, in addition to unknown environmental factors, produce the trait or condition.
Myeloma bone disease is cancer that affects certain white blood cells called plasma cells.
Detailed information on breast cancer clinical trials, including the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project
After receiving a few treatments, some patients feel nausea and begin vomiting in anticipation of the next treatment. The reaction is usually caused by something related to the treatment, like the smell of alcohol or the sight of a medical uniform.
Neuroblastoma is a cancerous tumor that begins in nerve tissue of infants and very young children. The abnormal cells are often found in the nerve tissue that is present in the unborn baby and later develops into a detectable tumor.
Detailed information on non-Hodgkins lymphoma, including symptoms, causes, risk factors, diagnosis, and treatment
Detailed information on non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, including causes, staging, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
These are good food choices when you have diarrhea: yogurt and cottage cheese; rice, noodles, and potatoes; eggs; white bread; smooth peanut butter; and skinned chicken or turkey, lean beef, and fish.
Clear liquids are helpful for many of the side effects of cancer. Generally speaking, clear liquids are liquids that are easy to see through and to pour. Full liquids have more calories, protein, and nutrients, and are easy to pour or can be sucked through a straw.
To boost your calories, add butter or margarine to puddings, casseroles, sandwiches, vegetables, cooked cereal, breads, and pasta. Add wheat germ to hot cereals, meat dishes, cookie batter, and casseroles.
Hypermetabolism can occur with some cancers. This condition affects how the body uses proteins, fats, and carbohydrates, and you may need to increase your calorie and protein intake. Discuss this with your doctor or registered dietitian.
Try these nutritious, high-calories beverages: chocolate-peanut butter shake, strawberry crush, peaches and cream, grape slush, and an old-fashioned milk shake.
The main goal during treatment is to try to keep your weight constant. In order to minimize weight changes, heal properly, and maintain the energy to cope with all the new challenges treatment may bring, you should try to eat a wide variety of high-calorie and high-protein foods.
If you have mouth problems, eat soft, soothing foods (at cold or room temperature), and puree cooked foods in the blender to make them smoother and easier to eat.
Check with your doctor to see if you can increase the fiber in your diet. If you can, try foods like whole-grain breads and cereals, dried fruits, wheat bran, and wheat germ; fresh fruits and vegetables; and dried beans and peas.
Nausea, vomiting, or changes in food’s taste or smell all may contribute to a person's losing his or her appetite. Sometimes, the cancer treatment itself will make you feel like not eating.
If you have nausea and vomiting, choose foods that are easy to chew, swallow, and digest, such as toast, crackers, and pretzels; yogurt; sherbet; skinned chicken; ice chips; and carbonated drinks.
Try these ideas: Serve food chilled rather than hot. Try tart foods, such as oranges or lemonade, which may have more taste. A tart lemon custard might taste good and will also provide needed protein and calories.
Ninety percent of oral cancer cases are caused by tobacco use. Oral cancer can affect the lips, teeth, gums, and lining of the mouth.
All tobacco products, from cigarettes to snuff, contain toxins, carcinogens, and nicotine, an addictive substance.
Osteosarcoma usually affects the long bones around the knee. It occurs most often in children, adolescents, and young adults.
Detailed information on osteosarcoma, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Detailed information on causes and risk factors for skin cancer, including heredity and environment
Several rare syndromes raise the risk for colorectal cancer. These disorders include Turcot syndrome, Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, juvenile polyposis coli, and MYH-associated polyposis.
Detailed information on Kaposi's sarcoma
Ovarian cancer can develop in one of three types—the first, on the surface of the ovary; the second, in the cells that form the eggs; the third, in the cells that produce female hormones.
A woman with this type of hereditary colon cancer is at increased risk for ovarian cancer.
Complementary medicine is used in conjunction with other therapies. It usually serves to relieve symptoms and improve quality of life. Alternative medicine is used alone, without standard treatment.
Detailed overview of leukemia, including types, causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
The goal of pain control is to prevent pain that can be prevented, and to treat pain that cannot be prevented. It is possible that you will not have pain from chemotherapy treatments, but if you do, you can take steps to relieve it.
Detailed information on pancreatic cancer, including types of benign tumors in the pancreas, malignant pancreatic cancers, symptoms, causes, diagnosis, and treatment
A Pap test is a way for your doctor to examine cells collected from the cervix for infection, inflammation, or cancer.
Detailed information on parathyroid tumors, including symptoms and treatment
People with this syndrome have dark moles around the mouth, nose, and eyes, as well as multiple polyps in the intestines.
Exercise is an effective activity for many people with cancer. Scientists are still learning about how physical activity helps cancer patients and what impact it has on the immune system.
Detailed information on the physical needs of the person with terminal cancer, including nutritional needs, elimination and respiratory changes, and pain management
Eating lots of brightly colored fruits and vegetables, whole grains and cereals, and beans containing phytochemicals may decrease the risk of developing cancer, diabetes, hypertension, and heart disease.
Detailed information on pituitary gland tumors, including symptoms, causes, types, diagnosis, and treatment
A prosthesis can be worn against the skin, inside the pocket of a mastectomy bra, or attached to the chest wall. Prosthetic devices are designed to look feminine and be comfortable.
The first step in preparing for your cancer treatment is to find an oncologist and treatment center. Ask your general or primary care physician for a referral or contact government and professional medical organizations, such as your state's health department, the National Cancer Institute, or the American Medical Association, for information on cancer specialists and treatment centers in your area.
Detailed information on skin cancer prevention
In the past 30 years, the five-year survival rate for all stages of prostate cancer combined has increased from 73 percent to nearly 100 percent.
Be available. Sometimes, people who are grieving do not want to talk or listen, nor do they want you to talk or listen. They simply want you to be there for them.
When a man is diagnosed with prostate cancer, it's normal for him to feel scared, angry, or depressed.
Radiation is often used to treat prostate cancer that is still confined to the prostate gland, or has spread only to nearby tissue.
Radiation therapy is a process that precisely sends high levels of radiation directly to the cancer cells. Radiation done after surgery can kill cancer cells that may not be seen during surgery.
Detailed information on retinoblastoma, including causes, stages, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Detailed information on rhabdomyosarcoma, including causes, stages, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Factors that appear to raise a woman's risk for breast cancer include advancing age, family history, benign breast conditions, and a late menopause.
Detailed information on the risk factors for prostate cancer
Early breast cancer usually does not cause pain and may cause no symptoms at all.
Early prostate cancer usually has no specific signs or symptoms—that's why prostate cancer screening is so important.
Detailed information on skin self-examination, including the importance of skin self-examination in skin cancer prevention and a step-by-step guide
Chemotherapy can affect both the skin and nails. It may cause an increased sensitivity to the sun as well as redness, rashes, itching, peeling, dryness, or acne. Nails may become darkened, yellow, brittle, or cracked, and may also develop vertical lines or ridges.
Smoking is directly responsible for the majority of lung cancer cases (87 percent), emphysema cases, and chronic bronchitis cases.
Detailed information on squamous cell carcinoma, including risk factors and places this type of cancer is typically found on the body
When breast cancer is diagnosed, your doctor will order tests to find out if the cancer has spread from the breast to other parts of the body. This is called staging and is an important step toward planning a treatment program.
When prostate cancer is diagnosed, tests are performed to determine how much cancer is present, and if the cancer has spread from the prostate to other parts of the body.
Detailed information on stomach cancer, including symptoms, causes, risk factors, diagnosis, and treatment
STAR was a clinical trial of the drug raloxifene that included more than 19,000 postmenopausal women at increased risk for breast cancer. The results showed that raloxifene worked as well as tamoxifen at reducing breast cancer risk.
Detailed information on the effects of ultraviolet light and the increased risk of skin cancer, including the use of sunscreen as one skin cancer prevention method
Palliative care can be provided in the hospital, at home, or in a setting specializing in such care. The duration may be long-term over several years, or short-term, lasting days or weeks. Palliative care may include chemotherapy or radiation for pain control.
Surgery to remove as much of the cancer as possible is the primary treatment for breast cancer. Today, women have many surgical options and choices.
One type of surgery for cancer is curative. This procedure removes the cancerous tumor or growth from the body. Surgeons use curative surgery when the cancerous tumor is in one specific area of the body. This type of treatment is often considered the primary treatment, but other types of cancer treatments, such as radiation, may be used before or after the surgery.
Long-term, serious side effects of prostate surgery are somewhat less common now than in the past, as new surgical methods continue to be introduced.
Testicular cancer is one of the most curable forms of cancer, but the symptoms may resemble other conditions or medical problems.
Detailed anatomical description of the biliary system, including a full-color labeled illustration
Grieving is a normal response to a loss. The loss can include the loss of your normal daily routine, the impact of the diagnosis on other family members, and the financial impact of the diagnosis.
Ninety percent of lung cancers are caused by smoking, but not everyone who smokes will develop lung cancer. Researchers believe that normal genetic variations, known as polymorphisms, may make some people more likely to develop lung cancer if they smoke.
The majority of cases of prostate cancer are sporadic, which means that one person in the family developed prostate cancer by chance at a typical age for this cancer. In these cases, other male relatives have little to no increased risk of developing prostate cancer.
Up to half of all Americans 65 and older will have at least one bout of skin cancer. The most common types of skin cancer in the United States are basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas. These are generally the result of sun exposure.
Detailed anatomical description of human liver, including simple definitions and labeled, full-color illustrations
Detailed anatomical description of human pancreas, including simple definitions and labeled, full-color illustrations
Detailed information on parathyroid glands, including anatomy and function
Detailed information on the anatomy and function of the pituitary gland
Detailed information on the thyroid gland, including anatomy and function
Detailed information on thyroid tumors, including symptoms and treatment
Detailed information on the most common treatments for skin cancer, including surgery, immunotherapy, radiation therapy, electrochemotherapy, biological therapy, and photodynamic therapy
Chromosome studies may be performed when a child is born with multiple birth defects or when people have certain types of leukemias and lymphomas, to look for specific chromosome rearrangements associated with these types of cancers. Direct DNA studies look directly at the gene in question for an error.
Detailed information on the effects of ultraviolet light and exposure categories according the Ultraviolet (UV) Index
Detailed information on the uses of genetic testing
Cancer of the uterus usually occurs around the time menopause begins. The occasional reappearance of bleeding should not be considered simply part of menopause, but should be checked by a doctor.
Detailed information on the effects of ultraviolet light and exposure categories according the Ultraviolet (UV) Index
Cancer of the vagina is rare. Certain factors thought to raise the risk for this type of cancer include advancing age, history of cervical cancer, and infection with the human papillomavirus.
VHL is a rare genetic disorder marked by an increased risk of developing benign tumors in the brain, spine, retina, and adrenal gland, and cancerous tumors in the kidney.
Nearly 90 percent of vulvar cancers are squamous cell carcinomas. Melanoma is the second most common type of vulvar cancer.
Detailed information on Wilms tumor, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
X-linked inheritance means that the gene alteration causing the trait or the disorder is located on the X chromosome. Females have two X chromosomes, and males have one X and one Y. Mutations in X chromosome genes can be recessive or dominant.
Yoga means "union"—a union of the mind, body, and spirit—and uses slow movement, precise posture, meditation, and breathing exercises to reach a state of relaxation.