Student Learning Outcomes
For successful completion of the course of study for the degree of Master of Physician Assistant Studies (MPAS) at OHSU, candidates for graduation must possess the knowledge, skills, attitudes and judgment to function in a broad variety of clinical situations and to render a wide spectrum of patient care. Candidates must demonstrate the capacity to develop academic and emotional maturity and leadership skills to function in a medical team.
In 2004, in response to similar efforts being conducted within other health care professions and growing demand for accountability and assessment in clinical practice, representatives from the National Commission on Certification of Physician Assistants (NCCPA), the Accreditation Review Commission on Education for the Physician Assistant (ARC-PA), the Association of Physician Assistant Programs (APAP), and the American Academy of Physician Assistants (AAPA) developed Competencies for the Physician Assistant Profession. This document serves as a foundation from which the OHSU PA Program has developed its student learning outcomes and objectives. The competencies utilized for graduate medical education, in general, are succinctly described by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education in "An Introduction to Competency-based Residency Education." The Competencies for the Physician Assistant Profession mirror and parallel the six general ACGME competencies. These are described below.
Medical knowledge includes an understanding of pathophysiology, patient presentation, differential diagnosis, patient management, surgical principles, health promotion, and disease prevention. At the completion of the physician assistant program, the graduate will be able to:
- Demonstrate core knowledge about established and evolving biomedical and clinical sciences and the application of this knowledge to patient care.
- Demonstrate an investigatory and analytic thinking approach to clinical situations.
- Understand etiologies, risk factors, underlying pathologic process, and epidemiology for medical conditions
- Identify signs and symptoms of medical conditions
- Select and interpret appropriate diagnostic or lab studies
- Manage general medical and surgical conditions to include understanding the indications, contraindications, side effects, interactions, and adverse reactions of pharmacologic agents and other relevant treatment modalities>
- Identify the appropriate site of care for presenting conditions, including identifying emergent cases and those requiring referral or admission
- Identify appropriate interventions for prevention of conditions
- Identify the appropriate methods to detect conditions in an asymptomatic individual
- Differentiate between the normal and the abnormal in anatomy, physiology, laboratory findings, and other diagnostic data
- Appropriately use history and physical findings and diagnostic studies to formulate a differential diagnosis
- Provide appropriate care to patients with chronic conditions.
Interpersonal & communication skills
Interpersonal and communication skills encompass verbal, nonverbal, and written exchange of information. Physician assistants must demonstrate interpersonal and communication skills that result in effective information exchange with patients, their patients' families, physicians, professional associates, and the health care system. Upon completion of the physician assistant program, graduates are expected to:
- Create and sustain a therapeutic and ethically sound relationship with patients
- Use effective listening, nonverbal, explanatory, questioning, and writing skills to elicit and provide information
- Appropriately adapt communication style and messages to the context of the individual patient interaction.
- Work effectively with physician and other health care professionals as a member or leader of a health care team or other professional group
- Apply an understanding of human behavior
- Demonstrate emotional resilience and stability, adaptability, flexibility, and tolerance of ambiguity and anxiety
- Accurately and adequately document and record information regarding the care process for medical, legal, quality, and financial purposes.
Patient care includes age appropriate assessment, evaluation, and management. Physician assistants must demonstrate care that is effective, patient-centered, timely, efficient, and equitable for the treatment of health problems and the promotion of wellness. Upon completion of the physician assistant program, graduates are expected to:
- Work effectively with physicians and other health care professionals to provide patient-centered care
- Demonstrate caring and respectful behaviors when interacting with patients and their families
- Gather essential and accurate information about their patients
- Make informed decisions about diagnostic and therapeutic interventions based on patient information and preferences, up-to-date scientific evidence, and clinical judgment
- Develop and carry out patient management plans
- Counsel and educate patients and their families
- Competently perform medical and surgical procedures considered essential in the area of practice
- Provide health care services and education aimed at preventing health problems or maintaining health.
Professionalism is the expression of positive values and ideals as care is delivered. Foremost, it involves prioritizing the interests of those being served above one's own. Physician assistants must know their professional and personal limitations. Professionalism also requires that PAs practice without impairment from substance abuse, cognitive deficiency, or mental illness. Physician assistants must demonstrate a high level of responsibility, ethical practice, sensitivity to a diverse patient population, and adherence to legal and regulatory requirements. Upon completion of the physician assistant program, graduates are expected to:
- Discuss legal and regulatory requirements, as well as the appropriate role of the physician assistant
- Develop and maintain professional relationships with physician supervisors and other health care providers
- Demonstrate respect, compassion, and integrity
- Demonstrate responsiveness to the needs of patients and society
- Be accountable to patients, society, and the profession
- Demonstrate commitment to excellence and ongoing professional development
- Uphold ethical principles pertaining to the provision or withholding of clinical care, confidentiality of patient information, informed consent, and business practices
- Demonstrate sensitivity and responsiveness to patients' culture, age, gender, and disabilities
- Display self-reflection, critical curiosity, and initiative.
Practice-based learning and improvement
Practice-based learning and improvement includes the processes through which clinicians engage in critical analysis of their own practice experience, medical literature, and other information resources for the purpose of self- improvement. Physician assistants must be able to assess, evaluate, and improve their patient care practices. Upon completion of the physician assistant program, graduates are expected to:
- Analyze practice experience and perform practice-based improvement activities using a systematic methodology in concert with other members of the health care delivery team
- Locate, appraise, and integrate evidence from scientific studies related to their patients' health problems
- Obtain and apply information about their own population of patients and the larger population from which their patients are drawn
- Apply knowledge of study designs and statistical methods to the appraisal of clinical studies and other information on diagnostic and therapeutic effectiveness
- Apply information technology to manage information, access online medical information, and support their own education
- Facilitate the learning of students and/or other health care professionals
- Recognize and appropriately address gender, cultural, cognitive, emotional, and other biases; gaps in medical knowledge; and physical limitations in themselves and others.
Systems-based practice encompasses the societal, organizational, and economic environments in which health care is delivered. Physician assistants must demonstrate an awareness of and responsiveness to the larger system of health care to provide patient care that is of optimal value. PAs should work to improve the larger health care system of which their practices are a part. Upon completion of the physician assistant program, graduates are expected to:
- Use information technology to support patient care decisions and patient education
- Effectively interact with different types of medical practice and delivery systems
- Understand the funding sources and payment systems that provide coverage for patient care
- Practice cost-effective health care and resource allocation that does not compromise quality of care
- Advocate for quality patient care and assist patients in dealing with system complexities
- Partner with supervising physicians, health care managers, and other health care providers to assess, coordinate, and improve the delivery of health care and patient outcomes
- Accept responsibility for promoting a safe environment for patient care and recognizing and correcting systems-based factors that negatively impact patient care
- Use information technology to support patient care decisions and patient education
- Apply medical information and clinical data systems to provide more effective, efficient patient care
- Utilize the systems responsible for the appropriate payment of services.
All candidates for an OHSU degree or certificate must possess essential skills and abilities necessary to complete the curriculum successfully. OHSU has developed nonacademic technical standards, basic to all of OHSU's educational programs, Such technical standards include the ability to acquire, synthesize, and apply information in a variety of settings and using a variety of modalities; the ability to manipulate the equipment, instruments, apparatus, or tools required to collect and interpret data appropriate to the physician assistant practice; use intellectual ability, exercise proper judgment, and complete all responsibilities within a timeframe that is appropriate to a given setting; demonstrate emotional stability to function effectively under stress and adapt to changing environments inherent in clinical practice and health care. A complete list of the technical standards is available on the university and program websites.