Pulp Capping, Pulpotomies and Apexogenesis 2009

Objectives and Goals

  • Define indirect and direct pulp capping, and pulpotomy.
  • State the indications for and the clinical technique of indirect and directpulp capping and pulpotomy.
  • Discuss the success and failure rates for direct and indirect pulpcapping and pulpotomy.
  • Discuss the various materials and medicaments used for pulp capping and pulpotomies.
  • Distinguish a completely developed from an incompletely developed root and determine which types of cases require treatment.
  • Discuss the treatment alternatives and the impact a vital pulp has on the treatment plan.
  • Describe the historical evolution of the apexogenesis procedures and recognize authors that have made significant literature contributions to each procedure.
  • Describe a step-by-step clinical procedure for apexogenesis techniques, including recognition of treatment completion or failure.
  • Discuss the possible morphologic and histologic features of the apexogenesis procedures.

Ingle's Endodontics, ed 6; Ingle Bakland and Baumgartner. BC Decker 2008. pgs. 1310-1329; 1348-1350.


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*Teplitsky PE, Grieman R.  History of formocresol pulpotomy. J Canadian Dent Assoc 50:629. 1984.


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Cox CF, Bergenholtz G.  Healing sequence in capped inflamed dental pulps of Rhesus monkeys.  Int Endodon J  19:113. 1986.


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Pitt Ford TR, Torabinejad M, Abedi HR, Bakland LK, Kariyawasam, SP. Using MTA as pulp capping material. J Am Dent Assoc.  127:1491. 1996.


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Pedo  El Meligy OAS,

Avery DR. Comparison of apexification with Mineral Trioxide Aggregate and calcium hydroxide. Pediatric Dent 28:248. March, 2006.

Pedo  El Meligy OAS,

Avery DR. Comparison of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate andcalcium hydroxide as pulpotomy agents in young permanent teeth (Apexogenesis). Pediatric Dent 28:399. May, 2006.

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