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Chris Madden

  • (503) 418-7033
    • Research Assistant Professor of Neurological Surgery School of Medicine

The central neural control of autonomic outflow to all tissues of the body is an integral component of the physiological mechanisms contributing to homeostasis. Dysregulation of autonomic function contributes to the etiology, morbidity, and mortality associated with many of the disease states and pathological conditions prevalent in modern society, such as obesity, diabetes, hypertension, sudden cardiac death, stroke, infection and sepsis. My research is directed toward understanding the detailed functional organization of the central neural circuits regulating metabolism, glucose homeostasis, cardiovascular function, and thermogenesis and how alterations in this regulation contribute to the pathology of disease. I currently use in vivo electrophysiological techniques, including direct simultaneous recordings of peripheral nerve activities and central nervous system single cell discharge, as well as, pharmacological, functional neuroanatomical, molecular biological, and optogenetic techniques to investigate the central neural circuits that regulate cardiovascular function, blood glucose homeostasis, body temperature, and energy metabolism. Gaining a greater knowledge of these brain pathways will increase our understanding of pathological conditions and provide a basis for novel therapeutic approaches to their treatment.Obesity is a major problem facing modern society. While excess caloric intake certainly contributes to the incidence of obesity, reductions in energy expenditure can also contribute to weight gain and hamper attempts at weight loss. Metabolism in brown adipose tissue is a neurally regulated contributor to energy expenditure. The observation of an increase in susceptibility to obesity following destruction of brown adipose tissue has led to a recent re-emergence of interest in the contribution of this tissue to obesity. This interest has been bolstered by the findings in both clinical and non-human studies that the functional amount of brown fat is inversely correlated with obesity. The activity of the nerves innervating brown fat governs the acute metabolic activity of these cells and the recruitment and development of additional brown adipose cells. Despite the importance of the regulation of brown adipose tissue, the details of the brain pathways involved in this regulation are only beginning to be understood.

Education

  • Ph.D., University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh Pennsylvania 2002
  • B.S., University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh Pennsylvania 1995

Publications

  • "Arcuate neuropeptide y inhibits sympathetic nerve activity via multiple neuropathways." Journal of Clinical Investigation In: , Vol. 127, No. 7, 30.06.2017, p. 2868-2880.
  • "Glycinergic inhibition of bat sympathetic premotor neurons in rostral raphe pallidus." American Journal of Physiology - Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology In: , Vol. 312, No. 6, 01.06.2017, p. R919-R926.
  • "A high-fat diet impairs cooling-evoked brown adipose tissue activation via a vagal afferent mechanism." American Journal of Physiology - Endocrinology and Metabolism In: , Vol. 311, No. 2, 01.08.2016, p. E287-E292.
  • "Central nervous system regulation of brown adipose tissue." Comprehensive Physiology In: , Vol. 4, No. 4, 01.10.2014, p. 1677-1713.
  • "Central neural regulation of brown adipose tissue thermogenesis and energy expenditure." Cell Metabolism  In: , Vol. 19, No. 5, 06.05.2014, p. 741-756.
  • "Autonomic regulation of brown adipose tissue thermogenesis in health and disease : Potential clinical applications for altering BAT thermogenesis." Frontiers in Neuroscience In: , No. 8 FEB, 14, 2014.
  • "Efferent projections of neuropeptide Y-expressing neurons of the dorsomedial hypothalamus in chronic hyperphagic models." Journal of Comparative Neurology In: , Vol. 521, No. 8, 01.06.2013, p. 1891-1914.
  • "Highlights in basic autonomic neurosciences : Central adenosine A1 receptor - The key to a hypometabolic state and therapeutic hypothermia?" Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical In: , Vol. 176, No. 1-2, 06.2013, p. 1-2.
  • "α2 adrenergic receptor-mediated inhibition of thermogenesis." Journal of Neuroscience In: , Vol. 33, No. 5, 30.01.2013, p. 2017-2028.
  • "Hypothalamic regulation of body temperature."  The Human Hypothalamus: Anatomy, Functions and Disorders. Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2013. p. 312-341.
  • "Central activation of the A1 adenosine receptor (A1AR) induces a hypothermic, torpor-like state in the rat." Journal of Neuroscience In: , Vol. 33, No. 36, 2013, p. 14512-14525.
  • "Glucoprivation in the ventrolateral medulla decreases brown adipose tissue sympathetic nerve activity by decreasing the activity of neurons in raphé pallidus." American Journal of Physiology - Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology In: , Vol. 302, No. 2, 01.2012.
  • "Central control of brown adipose tissue thermogenesis." Frontiers in Endocrinology  In: , Vol. 3, No. JAN, Article 5, 2012.
  • "An orexinergic projection from perifornical hypothalamus to raphe pallidus increases rat brown adipose tissue thermogenesis." Journal of Neuroscience In: , Vol. 31, No. 44, 02.11.2011, p. 15944-15955.
  • "Excess dietary salt intake alters the excitability of central sympathetic networks." Physiology and Behavior In: , Vol. 100, No. 5, 07.2010, p. 519-524.
  • "Inhibition of brown adipose tissue thermogenesis by neurons in the ventrolateral medulla and in the nucleus tractus solitarius." American Journal of Physiology - Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology In: , Vol. 299, No. 1, 07.2010.
  • "Endogenous activation of spinal 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptors contributes to the thermoregulatory activation of brown adipose tissue." American Journal of Physiology - Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology In: , Vol. 298, No. 3, 03.2010.
  • "Neurons in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus inhibit sympathetic outflow to brown adipose tissue." American Journal of Physiology - Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology In: , Vol. 296, No. 3, 03.2009.
  • "Central control of thermogenesis in mammals." Experimental Physiology In: , Vol. 93, No. 7, 07.2008, p. 773-797.
  • "Central pathway for spontaneous and prostaglandin E2-evoked cutaneous vasoconstriction." American Journal of Physiology - Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology In: , Vol. 295, No. 1, 07.2008.
  • "Brown adipose tissue sympathetic nerve activity is potentiated by activation of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)1A/5-HT7 receptors in the rat spinal cord." Neuropharmacology In: , Vol. 54, No. 3, 03.2008, p. 487-496.
  • "Increased dietary salt enhances sympathoexcitatory and sympathoinhibitory responses from the rostral ventrolateral medulla." Hypertension In: , Vol. 50, No. 2, 08.2007, p. 354-359.
  • "Serotonin potentiates sympathetic responses evoked by spinal NMDA." Journal of Physiology In: , Vol. 577, No. 2, 01.12.2006, p. 525-537.
  • "Intravenous 6-hydroxydopamine attenuates vasopressin and oxytocin secretion stimulated by hemorrhage and hypotension but not hyperosmolality in rats." American Journal of Physiology - Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology In: , Vol. 291, No. 1, 2006.
  • "Attenuation of homeostatic responses to hypotension and glucoprivation after destruction of catecholaminergic rostral ventrolateral medulla neurons." American Journal of Physiology - Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology In: , Vol. 291, No. 3, 2006.
  • "Hypoxic activation of arterial chemoreceptors inhibits sympathetic outflow to brown adipose tissue in rats." Journal of Physiology In: , Vol. 566, No. 2, 15.07.2005, p. 559-573.
  • "Dorsomedial hypothalamic and brainstem pathways controlling thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue." Journal of Thermal Biology In: , Vol. 29, No. 7-8 SPEC. ISS., 10.2004, p. 333-337.
  • "Excitatory amino acid receptors in the dorsomedial hypothalamus mediate prostaglandin-evoked thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue." American Journal of Physiology - Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology In: , Vol. 286, No. 2 55-2, 02.2004.
  • "Cardiovascular regulation after destruction of the C1 cell group of the rostral ventrolateral medulla in rats." American Journal of Physiology - Heart and Circulatory Physiology In: , Vol. 285, No. 6 54-6, 12.2003.
  • "Excitatory amino acid receptor activation in the raphe pallidus area mediates prostaglandin-evoked thermogenesis." Neuroscience In: , Vol. 122, No. 1, 20.11.2003, p. 5-15.

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