Posts Tagged ‘OHSU Researchers’

OHSU researchers reveal atomic structure of a key molecular receptor

The receptor proteins of a cell’s surface are important transmitters of signals between its internal and external environments. The P2X integral membrane proteins, first defined in 1976, modulate processes as diverse as platelet activation, smooth muscle contraction, synaptic transmission, inflammation, hearing and taste, making P2X receptors important pharmacological targets. P2X receptors are activated by ATP, a major intracellular energy source, resulting in a change in the receptor’s structure and the flow of ions such as … Read More

OHSU researchers reveal mechanism of neuronal activity that controls fertility

Reproductive function is a highly regulated process that depends on certain hormones interacting in a controlled and rhythmic manner.  The hypothalamus and pituitary together control pubertal development and fertility; the hypothalamus releases a chemical messenger called gonadotropin-releasing hormone, which attaches to specific receptors of the pituitary gland, in turn releasing reproductive hormones that control ovulation in females and sperm production in males. In females, the hypothalamus releases GnRH in appropriately timed pulses and in one … Read More

New research shows search and destroy function for leukemia cells

The rapid growth of leukemia cells that “crowd out” healthy stem cells within the bone marrow has traditionally been considered the root cause for prolonged risk of infections and necessary blood transfusions. A study recently completed by a team of OHSU pediatric cancer biology researchers in the Pape Family Pediatric Research Institute – and published in the journal Science Signaling –  disputes this theory and provides the first description of leukemia cells’ ability to actively … Read More

Who’s new at OHSU? Fikadu G. Tafesse, Ph.D.

Fikadu G. Tafesse, Ph.D. is an assistant professor of molecular microbiology and immunology who is working to understand how pathogens utilize host cellular processes during infection. He arrived at OHSU from Boston in February, 2016. Where are you from originally? I was born and raised in Ethiopia and got my undergraduate degree in agriculture there, learning how to grow crops – basic farming. After graduation, I decided to go to Europe to gain more experience and ended … Read More

Researchers study potential treatment to reduce brain swelling after stroke

Brain swelling resulting from a large, acute stroke event causes further damage and can lead to major disability and death, and there are few effect treatment options. Existing drug regimens do not improve survival or functional outcome. Decompressive craniectomy, a surgical procedure to remove part of the skull, allowing the brain to swell without being squeezed, improves outcomes in some patients but increases survival with major disability in others. Future treatments are likely to target pathways involved in brain swelling, and … Read More

OHSU researchers elucidate the role of diet in treating people with MS

A first-time controlled clinical trial found that a low-fat, plant-based diet significantly improved the health of people with multiple sclerosis (MS) by reducing both fatigue and weight. Those improvements go hand-in-hand with fighting some of the most debilitating effects of MS, according to the study’s lead author, Vijayshree Yadav, M.D., a MS neurologist with the Oregon Brain Institute at OHSU. While the new research did not show differences in the MS lesions on the brain … Read More

OHSU Library to sponsor two scholarships for OpenCon 2016

Interested in scientific communication? Want a more open system to share research and data? Then OpenCon 2016 could be the catalyst for you to pursue these passions and the OHSU Library wants to send you to Washington, D.C., where the conference is being held this year, Nov. 12 to 14. OpenCon is designed to teach scientists and scholars from around the world about open access, open data, and open education, and foster a discussion on key issues surrounding scholarly communications and publications. The conference … Read More

Who’s new at OHSU? Nathalie Pamir, Ph.D.

Nathalie Pamir, Ph.D., is an assistant professor in the School of Medicine, Knight Cardiovascular Institute (KCVI), where she focuses on preventive cardiology. Where are you from originally? I’m from a Russian family but I was born in Turkey and spent my childhood there. I then went through the French school system and returned to Turkey to get my undergraduate degree. From there I moved to Vancouver, B.C., where I earned my master’s degree at the … Read More

Study led by OHSU researchers provides evidence of immune therapy efficacy in treating metastatic prostate cancer

Programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) inhibitors have shown anti-tumor activity in patients with melanoma, renal cell, non-small cell lung cancer, and bladder cancer. However, patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer demonstrated no response to such immunotherapies in past studies. Now, a research team led by Julie Graff, M.D., assistant professor and oncologist with the Knight Cancer Institute, has shown clear evidence of meaningful clinical activity for PD-1 blockade in men with metastatic prostate cancer resistant to … Read More

OHSU researchers visualize architecture of the TARP complex

Glutamate receptors are the most prevalent molecular “switches” mediating communication between nerve cells in the brain. They play keys roles in nearly all human behaviors, from learning to memory and movement, as simply a few examples.  Glutamate receptors are also the targets of a broad range of therapeutic agents, from anti-seizure medications to antidepressants. Glutamate receptors do not function alone, however: they form complexes with other proteins called transmembrane AMPA-receptor regulatory proteins, or TARPs. These accessory proteins modulate … Read More

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