Posts Tagged ‘Neuroscience’

Sex, cognition, and stimulating neurons: Katie Wallin-Miller featured in OHSU In the Lab

Men and women suffer from mental illnesses at the same rate, but the kinds of disorders that tend to occur in men and women are very different. Katie Wallin-Miller, Ph.D., studies sex differences in the neurobiological mechanisms underlying mental processes of cognition. Understanding the basis of these differences may lead to more effective treatments for mental illnesses. Wallin-Miller is a postdoctoral fellow in the lab of  Bita Moghaddam, Ph.D., where research focuses on the neurobiology of mental illness. What are you … Read More

New insights into the neural representation of reward and punishment

The ability to weigh the risk of punishment relative to the risk of reward is critical to our ability to make decisions. New research by Bita Moghaddam, Ph.D., provides fresh insight into how the brain processes reward and punishment. Little has been known about the neural representation of punishment risk during reward-seeking behavior. For people to make the best decisions, our brains need to appropriately represent the punishment that lurks during reward-seeking actions. An exaggerated neural representation … Read More

Functional brain connectivity: Fair lab shines new light on the role of genetics

Every person has a distinct pattern of functional brain connectivity — a connectotype, or brain signature. A team led by Damien Fair, Ph.D., P.A.-C., reports a new methodology that reliably identifies and tracks these individual brain signatures. The research shows that, while individually unique, each connectotype demonstrates both familial and heritable relationships. The results were published in Network Neuroscience. The work builds on continuing research in the Fair lab. In a previous study, the team showed … Read More

New findings show retinal development requires the protein dystroglycan

OHSU scientists have published a paper that provides new information on retinal development and visual system abnormalities present in dystroglycanopathy, a form of muscular dystrophy that results from defective function of the protein dystroglycan. Patients with severe forms of dystroglycanopathy frequently experience visual system problems in addition to other neurodevelopmental abnormalities. There is some understanding of dystroglycan’s influence on brain development, but its role in regulating retinal development has remained poorly understood. A team led … Read More

Study suggests cosmic rays pose long-term risks for astronauts

For astronauts on long missions in deep space, the brain’s response to radiation exposure is an important concern. Cognitive and other impairments put crews at risk during space travel and may pose significant health hazards to space flight crews for years after a mission. A unique feature of the space radiation environment is the presence of galactic cosmic rays and solar particle events, both of which involve protons. Exposure to these will likely impact multiple … Read More

Tracing the mechanisms of pain and empathy for pain

A new study finds a potential neural overlap between physically induced and socially transferred increased sensitivity to pain, or hyperalgesia. Previous research has shown that pain sensitivity associated with alcohol withdrawal can be communicated to nearby individuals by olfactory cues. But how this social transfer of pain occurs is not known. Scientists at OHSU have now demonstrated that pain and empathy for pain activate partially overlapping regions of the brain in mice. Andrey Ryabinin, Ph.D., … Read More

OHSU scientist Mandel elected to Society for Neuroscience leadership post

Gail Mandel, Ph.D., has been elected to the governing body of the Society for Neuroscience. Mandel, a senior scientist at the Vollum Institute and professor in the Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology in the School of Medicine, begins her four-year term on November 11, 2017. Mandel’s lab focuses on understanding how neuronal cell identity is established and maintained. Her team discovered that this is achieved primarily through a repressor mechanism with the DNA-binding protein, … Read More

NeuroFutures 2017: Brain connectivity in health and disease, July 9–11

Join some of the brightest minds in research, engineering, industry and clinical domains at NeuroFutures 2017. This year’s conference will focus on neuronal circuits, with topics including novel imaging approaches, brain clearing and expansion techniques, human and non-human primate circuit function, genetically engineered probes for circuit function, circuits in degeneration, and circuits in psychiatric disorders. NeuroFutures 2017 July 9-11, 2017   University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Gary Marcus, Ph.D., director, NYU Center for Language … Read More

Sex matters: OHSU researchers shine light on mechanisms of ischemic stroke

Sex—like age, weight, and underlying health conditions—is a biological variable that is often a critical factor when it comes to health. However, sex has been largely absent in research and this has led to an incomplete understanding of sex-based differences in disease processes and treatment therapies that are appropriate for men and women. Ischemic stroke is one of the diseases for which a lack of preclinical data on male and female subjects presents a critical … Read More

OHSU researchers discover a mechanism promoting neural stem cells

A breakthrough study by OHSU scientists demonstrates, for the first time, a mechanism that prevents the formation of new neurons in old brains. The discovery provides a new path for investigation that may lead to the prevention—and potentially the reversal—of age-related dementia by promoting the formation of neurons and preventing their decline. The production of neurons drops dramatically during aging, and the brain slows down. New reports continue to emerge that suggest—but do not prove—that … Read More

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