Posts Tagged ‘Discoveries’

New research shows search and destroy function for leukemia cells

The rapid growth of leukemia cells that “crowd out” healthy stem cells within the bone marrow has traditionally been considered the root cause for prolonged risk of infections and necessary blood transfusions. A study recently completed by a team of OHSU pediatric cancer biology researchers in the Pape Family Pediatric Research Institute – and published in the journal Science Signaling –  disputes this theory and provides the first description of leukemia cells’ ability to actively … Read More

Researchers study potential treatment to reduce brain swelling after stroke

Brain swelling resulting from a large, acute stroke event causes further damage and can lead to major disability and death, and there are few effect treatment options. Existing drug regimens do not improve survival or functional outcome. Decompressive craniectomy, a surgical procedure to remove part of the skull, allowing the brain to swell without being squeezed, improves outcomes in some patients but increases survival with major disability in others. Future treatments are likely to target pathways involved in brain swelling, and … Read More

Co-invented by OHSU’s David Huang 25 years ago, OCT technology helps detect and stop blindness

This year marks the 25th anniversary of the invention of Optical Coherence Tomography technology, co-invented by Oregon Health & Science University Casey Eye Institute’s David Huang, M.D., Ph.D., while Huang was a Ph.D. student with James Fujimoto, Ph.D. at Massachusetts Institute of Technology. To commemorate the anniversary, the Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology (ARVO) published a special anniversary edition in their journal Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science with more than 70 articles. OCT is the … Read More

Grompe lab discovery offers new clues to diabetes causes and treatment

Diabetes affects nearly 30 million people in the United States. The disease is caused by dysfunction or loss of insulin-producing beta cells that normalize blood sugar levels in the body. Until now, only one type of beta cell was known to exist. But OHSU researchers have developed a method allowing them to identify and isolate four separate subtypes that differ in their susceptibility to metabolic stress and their capacity to proliferate or change from one cell type … Read More

OHSU researchers visualize architecture of the TARP complex

Glutamate receptors are the most prevalent molecular “switches” mediating communication between nerve cells in the brain. They play keys roles in nearly all human behaviors, from learning to memory and movement, as simply a few examples.  Glutamate receptors are also the targets of a broad range of therapeutic agents, from anti-seizure medications to antidepressants. Glutamate receptors do not function alone, however: they form complexes with other proteins called transmembrane AMPA-receptor regulatory proteins, or TARPs. These accessory proteins modulate … Read More

OHSU investigators uncover factors driving “low-value care”

Waste accounts for roughly 20 percent of spending in the U.S. health care system. A significant portion of that waste is attributed to low-value care – unnecessary tests and treatments that are not only costly but provide little clinical benefit or may even harm patients. However, little was known about the patterns and drivers of this type of care. In a first-of-its kind study, researchers from OHSU’s Center for Health Systems Effectiveness (CHSE), compared low-value … Read More

OHSU researchers develop new technique for selecting gene-corrected cells

Gene therapy offers great promise for treating genetic disorders and in repairing or correcting injury and disease. However, efforts to modify and expand the pool of gene-edited cells to reach therapeutic levels have proved challenging to date. Current methods are not only time consuming and expensive, but also present a risk to the patient. Now a team of researchers led by Sean Nygaard, B.S., M.Div., senior research associate in the Markus Grompe Lab at OHSU’s Oregon … Read More

OHSU researcher’s discovery paves way for improved treatments for hearing-impaired

A team led by Lina A.J. Reiss, Ph.D., assistant professor in the OHSU School of Medicine’s Otolaryngology – Head & Neck Surgery Department, has discovered that as many as half of individuals wearing bilateral hearing devices experience abnormal processing of sounds that worsens their auditory perception, particularly speech recognition. Much progress has been made in the treatment of hearing loss with the development of hearing aids (HA) and more recently, cochlear implants (CI). In particular, combining acoustic and electric hearing from … Read More

OHSU authors’ paper on Nature Neuroscience cover

A paper co-authored by OHSU researchers is featured on the cover of May 2016’s Nature Neuroscience. The paper’s authors are Stephanie L. Padilla, Jian Qiu, Marta E. Soden, Elisenda Sanz, Casey C. Nestor, Forrest D. Barker, Albert Quintana, Larry S. Zweifel, Oline K. Rønnekleiv, Martin J. Kelly, and Richard D. Palmiter.  Ronnekleiv and Kelly are professors in the Department of Physiology and Pharmacology in the OHSU School of Medicine and senior scientists with the Oregon National Primate Research Center. … Read More

Eric Gouaux’s serotonin transporter research featured by NIH

Recent findings by Vollum Institute senior scientist, Eric Gouaux, Ph.D., and team that reveal the molecular structure of the human serotonin transporter, are getting a lot of attention from the biomedical community and the media. Gouaux’s study was featured in NIH Research Matters, the online publication that highlights groundbreaking NIH-funded discoveries. The article, “Serotonin transporter structure revealed,” discusses the innovative technique developed by the team that allowed them to use X-ray crystallography to capture a 3-D image of the … Read More

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