Posts Tagged ‘Discoveries’

Sex matters: OHSU researchers shine light on mechanisms of ischemic stroke

Sex—like age, weight, and underlying health conditions—is a biological variable that is often a critical factor when it comes to health. However, sex has been largely absent in research and this has led to an incomplete understanding of sex-based differences in disease processes and treatment therapies that are appropriate for men and women. Ischemic stroke is one of the diseases for which a lack of preclinical data on male and female subjects presents a critical … Read More

OHSU researchers: New discovery on obesity-high blood pressure relationship

Obesity contributes to high blood pressure, but why and how this happens remains unclear. One of the major causes of high blood pressure—or hypertension—is the inappropriate activation of the fight-or-flight sympathetic nervous system response, and most obesity researchers have focused on factors that increase sympathetic activity. Virginia Brooks, Ph.D., however, has been investigating mechanisms that inhibit this activity. A team led by Brooks, professor of physiology and pharmacology at OHSU, identified a neuromodulator, neuropeptide Y (NPY), that inhibits sympathetic activity in a specific area of … Read More

Arthur Vandenbark and team find treatment dose for MS is sex dependent

One of the main challenges in treating multiple sclerosis is reversing the effects of accumulated damage to the central nervous system. Damage to myelin, which coats and protects axons, and chronic axonal loss due to the absence of myelin are hallmarks of the disease. Most of the available drugs for MS are anti-inflammatory and used to treat the most common type of MS: relapsing-remitting. It is not clear to what extent these drugs help repair … Read More

High-fat diet in pregnancy can cause increased respiratory problems in children

By the time they are six, half of all children in the United States require medical attention because of wheezing and other respiratory symptoms. New research conducted at OHSU and published in Physiological Reports demonstrated that a maternal diet high in saturated fat plays a key role in programming airway hyperreactivity—a hallmark of asthma—in their offspring. Using a mouse model, this research supported findings in observational studies that associate maternal obesity and early life wheezing … Read More

OHSU scientist Ilya Ivlev finds patient decision aids can have big impact

Screening mammograms can cause significant stress for women—particularly for the 13 percent who receive news that their initial results are abnormal. Yet, for the majority of this 13 percent, additional imaging yields normal findings. False-positive findings occur at a significantly higher rate with annual screening than biennial screening and for women in their forties and seventies who do not have risk greater than the general population, research indicates that breast cancer mortality is not generally reduced with screening. … Read More

OHSU scientist Carsten Schultz: Illuminating insulin release

Worldwide, rates of type 2 diabetes quadrupled between 1980 and 2016. That growth, reported by the World Health Organization last April, reflects the urgent need for prevention and improved treatment of diabetes. In current treatments of individuals with diabetes, measuring insulin levels is a fundamental tool. Until now, laboratory tests have measured the total amount of insulin secreted by a large number of cells. But exploring the fundamental biology behind this process—and accurately testing drugs that could … Read More

OHSU scientist Jon Hennebold identifies key pathway in ovulation

Individuals should have the opportunity to have the number of children they want—that is the dogma of the laboratory of Jon Hennebold, Ph.D. To make that possible, Hennebold, chief of the Division of Reproductive & Developmental Sciences at the Oregon National Primate Research Center, focuses on identifying and characterizing the molecular events necessary for ovulation in primates. Most of what we currently know about the ovulation cycle stems from data generated using rodent models, but there is … Read More

OHSU researchers moving blood testing from the clinic to the home

Organ transplants, cancer treatments, and therapies for chronic diseases all require repeated blood tests to monitor levels of drugs and organ function. Frequently drawing blood from a vein becomes increasingly painful, technically difficult, and potentially traumatizing—especially for children. It is also expensive. In 2016, a record-breaking 33 thousand organ transplants were performed in the United States. An estimated 250,000 recipients of organ transplants performed since 1987 are still living. These individuals will have about 48 tests … Read More

Jacob Raber’s team sheds new light on diet and genetics in cognitive impairments

New OHSU research suggests that the risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease is elevated in people with insulin resistance, the effects of which may be ameliorated by a low-fat diet. The study, published in the journal Scientific Reports, was led by Jacob Raber, Ph.D., professor of behavioral neuroscience, neurology, and radiation medicine, School of Medicine, and sheds new light on the shared mechanisms that could explain the overlapping pathophysiology of genetic risk factor and diet. A diet high in saturated fats is a primary contributor … Read More

OHSU researchers discover a mechanism promoting neural stem cells

A breakthrough study by OHSU scientists demonstrates, for the first time, a mechanism that prevents the formation of new neurons in old brains. The discovery provides a new path for investigation that may lead to the prevention—and potentially the reversal—of age-related dementia by promoting the formation of neurons and preventing their decline. The production of neurons drops dramatically during aging, and the brain slows down. New reports continue to emerge that suggest—but do not prove—that … Read More

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