Posts Tagged ‘Discoveries’

OHSU researchers identify gene driving responses to brain injury

In response to brain injury, cells in the nervous system swiftly coordinate events that promote survival and repair. Glial cells—the most abundant cells in the nervous system—quickly locate the trauma site, clear damaged neurons, and recruit extra immune cells. This cascade of glial cells’ reactive events is promoted by Draper, an engulfment receptor needed to recognize and clear cellular debris in fruit flies, roundworms, and mammals. Until recently, the pathways that mediate glia responses to … Read More

OHSU researchers identify structure linked to insulin secretion

It was more than 30 years ago that an ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP ) channel was identified as the key molecular link between glucose metabolism and insulin secretion. The KATP channels sense metabolic changes and translate these energy fluxes into channel gating, which adjusts membrane excitability and regulates insulin secretion. They are the targets of the sulfonylureas, antidiabetic drugs that increase insulin release from beta cells in the pancreas. Genetic mutations of the channel cause several devastating rare … Read More

OHSU researchers develop new model to study S. mutans behavior at protein level

Breakthrough innovation doesn’t happen overnight, and it doesn’t happen without money. OHSU Core Pilot Grants provide OHSU researchers with funds to develop new concepts or methods and to strengthen extramural grant proposals. The program is made possible by University Shared Resources, the School of Medicine, and the Office of the Senior Vice President for Research. In 2016, the University Shared Resources pilot funds provided more than $200,000 for early research by 22 OHSU researchers. With … Read More

OHSU researchers identify complex required for healthy brain

The intricately orchestrated series of events in nervous system development begins with the formation of neuroepithelial stem cells. These cells proliferate, creating progenitor cells that ultimately form neurons and the glia that provide support and protection for neurons. The balance of neurons and glia is fundamental to the development of a healthy brain. Achieving the optimal neuron–glia balance depends on a delicate relationship between the proliferation of progenitors and the differentiation of neurons and glia. … Read More

OHSU addiction researchers find opportunity for intervention

Patients with substance use disorders often suffer from and are hospitalized due to chronic illnesses that cause medical conditions such as abscesses and cardiovascular disease. Hospitalization temporarily disrupts drug use and can bring patients an increased awareness of mortality, the harmful effects of substance use, and its costs on relationships, including parenting. Some evidence also suggests that initiating medication-assisted treatment during these hospitalizations can increase the likelihood of patients engaging in substance use disorder treatment … Read More

OHSU research yields insight into aspirin’s anti-cancer effect

The anti-inflammatory and anti-platelet properties of aspirin have made it the subject of intensive investigation for over a century. More recently, aspirin use has been correlated with reduced long-term risk of some cancers, particularly colorectal cancer. The reasons remain unknown, as does the degree to which the effect comes from direct inhibition of cancer cells and how much is due to inhibition of platelet activation and function. A study recently completed by a team of OHSU researchers and published in the American … Read More

Carsten Schultz and lab develop new imaging platform for profiling cell signaling networks

Cellular development, tissue repair, immunity, and normal homeostasis rely on cells perceiving and appropriately responding to their microenvironment. While significant knowledge exists on the individual aspects of these cell signaling pathways, the question persists on how cell signaling networks integrate and process information from multiple extracellular cues. Understanding these processes may help develop therapies to more effectively treat diseases such as cancer and diabetes that result from errors in processing information. A study published December … Read More

OHSU’s Erick Turner and team finalists for Open Science Prize: voting open through Jan. 6

Alongside the growing availability of high-value open data for research are key obstacles — discoverability and the ability to access and use that data. The global science competition Open Science Prize was launched by the Wellcome Trust, US National Institutes of Health, and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute to encourage new ways to remove these obstacles. In the first phase of this new initiative, six international teams received prizes to develop prototypes. The teams presented … Read More

New OHSU research suggests possible target in fight against Alzheimer’s

In most of the human body, the lymphatic system clears away waste and toxins. The brain, however, has no lymphatic vessels. Its waste, including plaques associated with Alzheimer’s disease, is cleaned instead by cerebrospinal fluid recirculating through brain tissue. Over the course of five years, research in the lab of Jeffrey Iliff, Ph.D., has defined this brain-wide paravascular pathway, called the glymphatic system. Iliff’s team has found that this recirculation is modulated by sleep and also that, as the brain ages, this … Read More

New OHSU research provides key insight about mitochondrial replacement therapy

No treatments exist for children born with mitochondrial diseases, but a series of discoveries in the OHSU Center for Embryonic Cell and Gene Therapy is making progress on a technique that prevents transmission of these often-fatal genetic diseases, which are passed on from mothers to their children. The latest findings were published on Nov. 30 in the journal Nature. OHSU scientist Shoukhrat Mitalipov, Ph.D., led a team that successfully prevented transmission of genetic defects in … Read More

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