Endocrinology Reading List

  1. American Diabetes Association.  Standards of medical care in diabetes. Diabetes Care 2004;27(S1):S15-S35.
  2. Arauz-Pacheco C, Parrott MA, Raskin P. The management of hypertension in adult patients with diabetes. Diabetes Care 2002;25:134-147.

Type 1 Diabetes

  1. DeWitt DE, Hirsch IB. Outpatient insulin therapy in type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus: scientific review. JAMA 2003;289:2254-64 (via Ovid). Off-campus.
  2. Hirsch IB. Intensive treatment of type 1 diabetes. Medical Clinics of North America 1998;82:689-719.(OHSU) (via MD Consult). Off-campus.
  3. The Diabetes control and complications trial (DCCT) group. The effect of intensive treatment of diabetes on the development and progression of long-term complications in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med 1993; 329:977-986.

Type 2 Diabetes

  1. Nathan DM. Initial Management of Glycemia in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. New Eng J Med 2002;347:1342-1349.
  2. DeWitt DE, Hirsch IB. Outpatient insulin therapy in type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus: scientific review. JAMA 2003;289:2254-64(via Ovid). Off-campus.
  3. UK Prospective Diabetes Study Group.  Intensive blood-glucose control with sulphonylureas or insulin compared with conventional treatment and risk of complications in patients with type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 33)Lancet 1998;352: 837-53.
  4. Kahn SE. The importance of beta-cell failure in the development and progression of type 2 diabetes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2001; 86:4047-4058.
  5. Poitout V and Robertson P.  Secondary [beta]-Cell Failure in Type 2 Diabetes--A Convergence of Glucotoxicity and Lipotoxicity.   Endocrinology 2002;143(2):339-342.
  6. Knowler WC, Barrett- Connor E, Fowler SE, Hamman RF, Lachin JM, Walker EA, Nathan DM; Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group. Reduction in the incidence of type 2 diabetes with lifestyle intervention or metformin. N Engl J Med 2002;346:393-403.
  7. Riddle MC, Rosenstock J, Gerich J; Insulin Glargine 4002 Study Investigators. The treat-to-target trial: randomized addition of glargine or human NPH insulin to oral therapy of type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetes Care. 2003 Nov;26(11):3080-6.

Insulin Resistance Syndromes

  1. Tritos NA, Mantzoros CS. Syndromes of severe insulin resistance. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1998; 83:3025-3030.


  1. Fajans SS, Bell GI, Polonsky KS. Molecular mechanisms and clinical pathophysiology of maturity-onset diabetes of the young. N Engl J Med. 2001; 345:971-980.

Inpatient Diabetes

  1. Metchick LN. Inpatient management of diabetes. Am J of Med 2002;113:317-323.
  2. Hirsch IB and Paauw DS. Diabetes management in special situationsEndocrinology and Metabolism Clinics 1997;26(3):631-645 (OHSU) (via MD Consult). Off-campus.
  3. Umpierrez, G. E., S. D. Isaacs, et al. Hyperglycemia: an independent marker of in-hospital mortality in patients with undiagnosed diabetes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2002;87(3):978-82.
  4. Capes, S. E., D. Hunt, et al. Stress hyperglycemia and prognosis of stroke in nondiabetic and diabetic patients: a systematic overview. Stroke 2001;32(10):2426-32.
  5. Van den Berghe G, et al. Intensive insulin therapy in critically ill patients. New Engl J Med 2001; 345:1359-1367.
  6. Van den Berghe, G., P. J. Wouters, et al. Outcome benefit of intensive insulin therapy in the critically ill: Insulin dose versus glycemic control. Crit Care Med 2003;31(2):359-66(via Ovid). Off-Campus.
  7. Malmberg K. Prospective randomised study of intensive insulin treatment on long term survival after acute myocardial infarction in patients with diabetes mellitus. DIGAMI (Diabetes Mellitus, Insulin Glucose Infusion in Acute Myocardial Infarction) Study Group. BMJ. 314(7093):1512-5, 1997 May 24.
  8. Malmberg K. et al. Glycometabolic state at admission: important risk marker of mortality in conventionally treated patients with diabetes mellitus and acute myocardial infarction: long-term results from the Diabetes and Insulin-Glucose Infusion in Acute Myocardial Infarction (DIGAMI) studyCirculation 99(20):2626-32, 1999 May 25.
  9. Furnary, A.P., G. Gao, et al. Continuous insulin infusion reduces mortality in patients with diabetes undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2003;125(5):1007-21(via Ovid). Off-campus.


  1. American Diabetes Association. Hyperglycemic Crises in Patients With Diabetes Mellitus - Position Statement. Diabetes Care 2004;27:S94-S102.
  2. Delaney MF, et al. Diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperglycemic hyperosmolar nonketotic syndrome.   Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America 2000;29:683-705(via MD Consult). Off-campus.

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  1. Service FJ. Hypoglycemia. Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America 1997;26:937-955(via MD Consult). Off-campus.

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  1. Willett WC, Dietz WH, Colditz GA. Guidelines for healthy weight. N Engl J Med 1999; 341:427-434.
  2. McTigue KM et al. Screening and Interventions for Obesity in Adults: Summary of the Evidence for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Ann Int Med 2003; 139(11):933-949.
  3. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Screening for Obesity in Adults: Recommendations and Rationale. Ann Int Med; 2003;139(11):930-932.
  4. Overweight, obesity, and health risk. National Task Force on the Prevention and Treatment of Obesity. Arch Intern Med 2000;160:898-904(via Ovid). Off-campus.
  5. Schwartz MW, Woods SC, Prot D Jr, Seeley RJ, Baskin DG. Central nervous system control of food intake. Nature 2000;404(6778):661-71. Off-campus.
  6. Bodasing N et al. HIV-associated lipodystrophy syndrome: description and pathogenesis. J of Infection 2003;46:149-154.

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  1. Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults. Executive Summary of The Third Report of The National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, And Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol In Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III). http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/guidelines/cholesterol/atp_iii.htm
  2. Heart Protection Study Collaborative Group. MRC/BHF Heart Protection Study of cholesterol lowering with simvastatin in 20 536 high-risk individuals: a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2002;360:7-22.
  3. Kreisberg RA and Oberman A. Medical Management of Hyperlipidemia/Dyslipidemia. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism; 88(6):2445-2461.

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Thyroid Disease

Hyper/Hypothyroid Disorders

  1. Cooper DS. Antithyroid drugs. N Engl J Med. 2005 Mar 3;352(9):905-17.
  2. Gharib H, Tuttle RM, Baskin HJ, Fish LH, Singer PA, McDermott MT. Subclinical thyroid dysfunction: a joint statement on management from theAmerican Association of Clinical Endocrinologists, the American ThyroidAssociation, and the Endocrine Society. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005 Jan;90(1):581-5.
  3. Ladenson, PW et al. American Thyroid Association guidelines for detection of thyroid dysfunction. Arch Intern Med 2000;160:1573-1575(via Ovid). Off-campus.
  4. Weetman AP. Graves' disease. New Engl J Med 2000;343:1236-1248.
  5. Alexander EK, Marqusee E, Lawrence J, Jarolim P, Fischer GA, Larsen PR. Timing and magnitude of increases in levothyroxine requirements duringpregnancy in women with hypothyroidism. N Engl J Med. 2004 Jul 15;351(3):241-9.
  6. Mestman JH. Hyperthyroidism in pregnancy. Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics 1998;27(1):127-149. (via MD Consult). Off-Campus.
  7. Toft AD. Subclinical Hyperthyroidism. N Engl J Med 2001;345:512-516.
  8. Cooper DS. Subclinical Hypothyroidism. N Engl J Med 2001;345:260-265.
  9. Martino E, et al. The effects of amiodarone on the thyroid. Endocr Rev. 2001; 22:240-254.
  10. Pearce EN, Farwell AP, and Braverman LE. Thyroiditis. New Engl J Med 2003;348(26):2646-55.
  11. Klein IK and Ojamaa K. Thyroid Hormone and the Cardiovascular System. New Engl J Med 2001;344:501-509.
  12. Surks MI and Sievert R. Drugs and Thyroid FunctionNew Engl J Med 1995;333:1688-1694.

Nonthyroidal Illness

  1. Burman KD, Wartofsky L. Thyroid function in the intensive care unit setting. Crit Care Clin 2001;17:43-57 (via MD Consult). Off-campus.
  2. Langton, JL and Brent GA. Nonthyroidal illness syndrome: evaluation of thyroid function in sick patients.  Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics March 2002 31(1) (via MD Consult). Off-campus.

Nontoxic Goiter/Thyroid Nodules/Thyroid Cancer

  1. Cooper DS and the American Thyroid Association Guidelines Task Force. Management guidelines for patients with thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancer. Thyroid 16(2):109-142, 2006.
  2. Hegedus L. Clinical practice. The thyroid nodule. N Engl J Med. 2004 Oct 21;351(17):1764-71.
  3. Schlumberger MJ. Papillary and follicular thyroid carcinoma. New Engl J Med 1998;338:297-306.
  4. Mazzaferri EL, Kloos R. Current approaches to primary therapy for papillary and follicular thyroid cancer. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2001; 86:1447-1463
  5. Mazzaferri EL et al. A Consensus Report of the Role of Serum Thyroglobulin as a Monitoring Method for Low-Risk Patients with Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2003; 88(4):1433-41.

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Pituitary Disease

Pituitary Tumors

  1. Arafah BM and Nasrallah MP. Pituitary tumors: pathophysiology, clinical manifestations and management. Endocrine-Related Cancer 2001;8:287-305.
  2. Freda PU, Sharon L. Wardlaw SL. Diagnosis and treatment of pituitary tumors. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1999; 84:3859-3866.
  3. Aron DC and Howlett TA. Pituitary incidentalomasEndocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America 2000;29(1):205-221 (via MD Consult).
  4. Laws ER Jr. and Thapar K. Pituitary surgery. Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America 1999;28:119-142 (via MD Consult).

Prolactin Disorders

  1. Molitch ME. Medical treatment of prolactinomas. Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America 1999;28:143-169 (via MD Consult).
  2. Molitch ME. Disorders of prolactin secretion. Endocrinol Metab Clin N Amer 2001;30:585-610 (via MD Consult).
  3. Colao A and Lombardi G. Growth Hormone and Prolactin ExcessLancet 1998;352:1455-1461.

GH Disorders

  1. Giustina A et al. Criteria for cure of acromegaly: a consensus statement. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2000; 85:526-529.
  2. Colao A and Lombardi G. Growth Hormone and Prolactin ExcessLancet 1998;352:1455-1461.
  3. Freda PU.  Somatostatin analogs in acromegaly. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 87:3013-8, 2002.
  4. P. J. Trainer et al. Treatment of Acromegaly with the Growth Hormone-Receptor Antagonist Pegvisomant. New Engl J Med 2000;342:1171-1177.
  5. Consensus guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of adults with growth hormone deficiency: summary statement of the Growth Hormone Research Society Workshop on Adult Growth Hormone Deficiency. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1998; 83:379-381.
  6. Vance ML, Mauras N. Growth hormone therapy in adults and children. N Engl J Med 1999; 341:1206-1216.

Cortisol Disorders (see also Adrenal Disease)

  1. Raff R and Findling JW. A Physiologic approach to diagnosis of the Cushing Syndrome. Ann Int Med 2003;138:980-991.

Disorders of ADH

  1. Robertson GL. Antidiuretic hormone. Normal and disordered function. Endocrinol Metab Clin N Amer 2001;30:671-694 (via MD Consult).


  1. Lamberts SW et al. Pituitary Insufficiency. Lancet 1998;352:127-134.
  2. Bhasin S, Singh AB, Javanbakht M. Neuroendocrine abnormalities associated with HIV infection. Endocrinol Metab Clin N Amer 2001;30:749-764 (via MD Consult).

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Adrenal Disease
  1. Young WF Jr. Management approaches to adrenal incidentalomas: a view from Rochester, MinnesotaEndocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America 2000;29:159-185 (via MD Consult).
  2. Young WF, Maddox DE. Spells: in search of a cause.  Mayo Clin Proc 70:757-65, 1995(via Ovid). Off-campus.
  3. White PC and Speiser PW.  Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia due to 21-Hydroxylase Deficiency. Endocrine Reviews 2000;21(3):245-291.

Cortisol disorders (see also Pituitary disease)

  1. Oelkers W: Adrenal insufficiency. New Engl J Med 1996;335:1206-1212.
  2. Ten S, New M, MacLaren N. Addison's disease 2001. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2001; 86:2909-2922.
  3. Newell-Price J et al.  The Diagnosis and Differential Diagnosis of Cushing's Syndrome and Pseudo-Cushing's States. Endocrine Reviews 1998;19(5):647-672.
  4. Raff R and Findling JW. A Physiologic approach to diagnosis of the Cushing Syndrome. Ann Int Med 2003;138:980-991.
  5. Mayo J et al. Adrenal function in the Human Immunodeficiency Virus-infected patient. Arch Intern Med 2002;162:1095-1098(via Ovid). Off Campus.
  6. Marik PE et al. Adrenal insufficiency in critically ill patients with human immunodeficiency virus. Crit Care Med 2002;30:1267-1273(via Ovid). Off Campus.


  1. Ganguly A. Primary aldosteronism. N Engl J Med 1998; 339:1828-1834.


  1. Young WF Jr. Pheochromocytoma and primary aldosteronism: diagnostic approaches. Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America 1997;26:801-27. (via MD Consult)
  2. Bravo EL. Evolving Concepts in the Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Pheochromocytoma. Endocrine Reviews 1994;15(3):356-368.

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Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia
  1. Hoff AO, Cote GJ, Gagel RF. Multiple endocrine neoplasias. Annu Rev Physiol 2000; 62:377-411.
  2. Schussheim DH et al. Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1: new clinical and basic findings. Trends Endocrinol Metab 2001; 12:173-178.
  3. Lee NC, Norton JA. Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2B--genetic basis and clinical expression. Surg Oncol 2000; 9:111-118.

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Gonadal Disorders


  1. Mayroudis, K. Clinical syndromes of secondary amenorrhea. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1997;816:241-249.
  2. Warren MP: Clinical review 77: Evaluation of secondary amenorrhea. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1996;81:437-442.
  3. Moghissi, KS. A clinician's guide to the use of gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogues in women. Medscape Women's Health. 2000; 5(1).
  4. Miller KK, Klibanski A. Amenorrheic bone loss. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1999; 84:1775-1783.
  5. Lobo RA, Carmina E. The importance of diagnosing the polycystic ovary syndrome. Ann Intern Med 2000;132:989-993.
  6. Dunaif A, Thomas A. Current concepts in the polycystic ovary syndrome. Ann Rev Med 2001;52:401-419.
  7. Rittmaster RS. Hirsutism. Lancet 1997;349:191-195.
  8. Sanger P et al.  Recommendations for the diagnosis and management of Turner syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001;86:3061-3069.
  9. Hulley S, Furberg C, Barrett-Connor E, Cauley J, Grady D, Haskell W, Knopp R, Lowery M, Satterfield S, Schrott H, Vittinghoff, E, Hunninghake D, for the HERS Research Group. Noncardiovascular Disease Outcomes During 6.8 Years of Hormone Therapy: Heart and Estrogen/Progestin Replacement Study Follow-up (HERS II). JAMA 2002;288:58-66(via Ovid). Off-campus.
  10. Grady D, Herrington D, Bittner V, Blumenthal R, Davidson M. Hlatky M, Hsia J, Hulley S, Herd A, Khan S, Newby LK, Waters D, Vittinghoff E, Wenger N, for the HERS Research Group. Cardiovascular Disease Outcomes During 6.8 Years of Hormone Therapy: Heart and Estrogen/Progestin Replacement Study Follow-up (HERS II). JAMA 2002;288:49-57(via Ovid). Off-campus.


  1. Juul, A, and Skakkebaek, NE. Androgens and the ageing male. Human Reproduction Update 2002; 8(5):423-433.
  2. Petak SM, et al. AACE clinical practice guidelines for the evaluation and treatment of hypogonadism in adult male patients. Endocrine Practice 1996;2:439-453.
  3. Cohan P, Korenman SG. Erectile dysfunction. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2001; 86:2391-2394.
  4. Guay S, et al. AACE clinical practice guidelines for the evaluation and treatment of male sexual dysfunction. Endocrine Practice 1998;4:219-235.
  5. Braunstein GD. Gynecomastia. New Engl J Med 1993;328:490-495.
  6. Smyth CM, Bremner WJ. Klinefelter syndrome. Arch Intern Med 1998;158:1309-1314(via Ovid). Off-campus.

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Bone and Calcium Disorders

Bone Densitometry

  1. Cummings SR, Bates D, Black DM. Clinical use of bone densitometry: scientific review. JAMA. 2002 Oct 16;288(15):1889-97(via Ovid). Off Campus.
  2. Bates DW, Black DM, Cummings SR. Clinical use of bone densitometry: clinical applications. JAMA. 2002 Oct 16;288(15):1898-900(via Ovid). Off Campus.

Osteoporosis in Women

  1. Hodgson SF, et al. American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists 2001 medical guidelines for clinical practice for the prevention and management of postmenopausal osteoporosis (with revisions published 11/03) Endocrine Practice 2001;7:293-312.
  2. Cauley JA, Robbins J, Chen Z, Cummings SR, Jackson RD, LaCroix AZ, LeBoff M, Lewis CE, McGowan J, Neuner J, Pettinger M, Stefanick ML, Wactawski-Wende J, Watts NB; Women's Health Initiative Investigators. Effects of estrogen plus progestin on risk of fracture and bone mineral density: the Women's Health Initiative randomized trial. JAMA. 2003 Oct 1;290(13):1729-38(via Ovid). Off-campus.
  3. Ahlborg HG, Johnell O, Turner CH, Rannevik G, Karlsson MK. Bone loss and bone size after menopause. N Engl J Med. 2003 Jul 24;349(4):327-34.
  4. Neer RM et al. Effect of Parathyroid Hormone (1-34) on Fractures and Bone Mineral Density in Postmenopausal Women with Osteoporosis. N Engl J Med 2001; 344:1434-1441.
  5. Cummings SR, Karpf DB, Harris F, Genant HK, Ensrud K, LaCroix AZ, Black DM Improvement in spine bone density and reduction in risk of vertebral fractures during treatment with antiresorptive drugs. Am J Med. 2002 Mar;112(4):281-9.
  6. Seeman E The structural and biomechanical basis of the gain and loss of bone strength in women and men. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2003 Mar;32(1):25-38 (via MD Consult).

Osteoporosis in Men

  1. Amin S and Felson DT. Osteoporosis in men. Rheumatic Diseases Clinics of North America 2001;27:19-47 (via MD Consult).
  2. Orwoll E et al. Alendronate for the Treatment of Osteoporosis in Men. N Engl J Med 2000; 343:604-610.

Glucocorticoid-Induced Osteoporosis

  1. van Staa TP, Leufkens HG, Cooper C. The epidemiology of corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis: a meta-analysis. Osteoporos Int. 2002 Oct;13(10):777-87. Off-Campus.
  2. Recommendations for the prevention and treatment of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis: 2001 update. American College of Rheumatology Ad Hoc Committee on Glucocorticoid-Induced Osteoporosis. Arthritis Rheum 2001; 44:1496-1503.
  3. Lane NE. An update on glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. Rheumatic Diseases Clinics of North America 2001;27:235-253 (via MD Consult).

Paget's Disease

  1. Lyles KW et al.  A Clinical Approach to Diagnosis and Management of Paget's Disease of BoneJ Bone Miner Res 2001;16(8):1379-1387.

Calcium/Parathyroid Disorders

  1. Bushinsky DA and Monk RD. Calcium. Lancet 1998;352:306-311.
  2. Marx SJ. Hyperparathyroid and hypoparathyroid disorders. N Engl J Med 2000; 343:1863-1875.
  3. Bilezikian JP, Potts JT Jr, Fuleihan Gel-H, Kleerekoper M, Neer R, Peacock M, Rastad J, Silverberg SJ, Udelsman R, Wells SA Summary statement from a workshop on asymptomatic primary hyperparathyroidism: a perspective for the 21st century. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002 Dec;87(12):5353-61.
  4. Bilezikian JP. Primary hyperparathyroidism: when to observe and when to operate.   Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 2000;29:465-478 (via MD Consult).
  5. Silverberg SJ, Shane E, Jacob TP, Siris E, Bilezikian JP. A 10-year prospective study of primary hyperparathyroidism with or without parathyroid surgery. N Engl J Med 1999; 341:1249-1255.
  6. Silverberg SJ, Gao P, Brown I, LoGerfo P, Cantor TL, Bilezikian JP. Clinical utility of an immunoradiometric assay for parathyroid hormone (1-84) in primary hyperparathyroidism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003 Oct;88(10):4725-30
  7. Strewler GJ. The physiology of parathyroid hormone-related protein. N Engl J Med 2000; 342:177-185.
  8. Brown EM. Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia and other disorders with resistance to extracellular calcium. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2000 29:503-522 (via MD Consult).

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  1. Halperin ML and Kamel KS.  PotassiumLancet 1998;352:135-140.
  2. Kumar S and Berl T. Sodium. Lancet 1998;352:220-228.
  3. Gluck SL. Acid-Base. Lancet 1998;352:474-479.
  4. Weisinger JR and Bellorin-Font E.  Magnesium and Phosphorus. Lancet 1998;352:391-396.

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Pediatric Endocrinology


  1. Joint LWPES/ESPE CAH Working Group. Consensus statement on 21-hydroxylase deficiency from the Lawson Wilkins Pediatric Endocrine Society and the European Pediatric Endocrine Society. JCEM 87: 2002;4048-4053.


  1. Parent AS et al. The timing of normal puberty and the age limits of sexual precocity: Variations around the world, secular trends and changes after migration. Endocr Rev 2003 Oct;24(5):668-93.
  2. Herman-Gidden ME, Kaplowitz PD, and Wasserman R. Navigating the recent articles on Girls' puberty in Pediatrics: What do we know and where do we go from here? Pediatrics 2004: 911-917.

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Grant Writing Guides
  1. Inouye SK and Flellin DA. An Evidence-Based Guide to Writing Grant Proposals for Clinical Research. Ann Int Med 2005 142:274-282.